Menadžerski kapaciteti proizvođača tovnih pilića i njihov uticaj na rezultate proizvodnje
Managerial Capacities of Broiler Producers and their Influence on Production Results
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It is a well-known fact that there are significant differences in production output and business results of farms operating under rather similar natural and socio-economic conditions. Such differences can be attributed to biological factors, specialization level and production intensity, size of farms, implemented production practice, but also to the differences in capabilities of farmers, that is, their managerial capacities. The starting point in selection of subjects for the research was significance of managerial capacities and the fact that not enough attention is dedicated to them, as well as the necessity of urgent improvement of competitiveness in production of poultry meat in our country. Therefore, the subject of the research in this doctoral dissertation is managerial capacities of broiler producers in Vojvodina. When analysing managerial capacities of broiler producers, not only were personal aspects taken into account (gender, age, education level, previous experience, etc....), but the subject of consideration includes characteristics of decision making process (planning, implementation and control) as well. The main objective of the study is to point out to the significance of managerial capacities, possibilities and methods implemented in their assessment, and to establish the reason why some of the broiler producers in Vojvodina, operating under rather similar conditions, are more efficient as compared to other farmers. In order to analyse managerial capacities of broiler producers and to judge whether and to what extent do they influence the production output (technical and economic efficiency), 30 broiler farms of different production capacities, all at the territory of AP Vojvodina, were comprised in the analysis. One of the starting hypotheses in this study considers significant differences in technical and economic efficiency between the selected broiler farms. Technical and economy efficiency indexes, obtained by implemented DEA method, indicate that such hypothesis was justified. The obtained TE indexes point out that broiler producers in Vojvodina are relatively technically efficient (six out of thirty producers achieved maximum level of TE). However, the number of farms that achieved maximum level of EE is much lower (only one out of thirty farms achieves maximum level of EE), which indicates the market difficulties that producers are coping with, but also proves that it is possible to operate better under the existing conditions which are assumed to be the same for all. The number of economically inefficient farms could be reduced through decrease of production costs (primarily reduction of feed costs, increase of operation productivity, reduction of energy costs, etc.), which certainly requires, as one of preconditions, the adequate managerial capacities of producers. The assumption that certain aspects of managerial capacities, such as personal aspects and decision making process, influence TE and EE has been confirmed with the results of Tobit regression. Statistically significant influence of achieved TE and EE is confirmed in 9 out of 82 variables included in the models. This certainly does not mean VIII that other aspects of managerial capacities are not significant, but that under current conditions, relatively small number of variables determines the number of farms that will manage to achieve or at least to nearly achieve “the best possible practice”. Statistically significant influence was also proven in certain personal aspects of producers, as well as in some aspects of decision making process. Therefore, it is necessary to explain to producers and advisors the significance of the aforesaid aspects and to work on their improvement. The only aspect proven as significant both for TE and EE is the experience of farmers, which only explains the poor working environment that our producers operate in. The conclusion which can be derived from the aforesaid is that the most significant and irreplaceable managerial capacity of broiler producers is their experience. Such experience mainly refers to business relations and acquaintances obtained from long-lasting engagement in broiler production, but also to their ability to find their way and achieve success in conditions of the black economy. The fact that there is no statistical significance in terms of influence of certain aspects of managerial capacities on TE and EE, actually points out to underdevelopment of the required managerial capacities of broiler producers. Therefore, the improvement of managerial abilities must be set as the permanent task, so competitiveness of poultry meat sector could be increased. To this effect, it is necessary to provide constant education through trainings and seminars, as well as regular cooperation with advisory service (particularly in terms of significance of keeping records, planning and control of the achieved results), but also through exchange of experience and cooperation with other producers.