Epidemiološko-ekološke karakteristike lajšmanioze u Crnoj Gori
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Leishmaniasis belongs to the group of neglected diseases with diverse clinical spectrum and large epidemiological differences. The objective of this study was to determine the ecological and epidemiological characteristics of Leishmaniasis in Montenegro. As source of data, the filing cards sick/ deceased, epidemiological surveys, medical records, results of microbiological diagnostics, data published by medical, veterinary and other institutions were used. For data procession, standard statistical methods were conducted. During the period 19452014, there were 165 affected individuals from Leishmaniasis registered in Montenegro (6 died). The Visceral form dominated in 164 (99%) cases. This parasitosis is registered in 14 municipalities with the highest number of patients in Podgorica (52) and Bar (46). The average incidence rate was 0.45/100.000. For the whole country (19451981) trend of significant decline in number of cases by 3.1% annually was recorded, while during 1981-2014 trend... of significant increase in number of cases by 4.0% per year was recorded. Pre-school and school age children accounted 79.14% of the total number of cases. A positive correlation between the number of patients and 1°C increase of temperature (on annual basis in all three areas) was registered (the number of patients increased 0,150); on the other hand increase in humidity of 1% significantly associated with increase in number of cases in southern and mountainous area, but with decrease in number of cases in the central region of Montenegro. The increase in rainfall for 1 mm was also associated with increase in number of cases of Leishmaniasis in all three areas. Despite the progress in understanding of immunology and molecular biology of the Leishmaniasis, still there is no adequate immunoprophylaxis. Preventive measures and controls are undertaken regarding the destruction of the disesase carriers, detection and treatment of patients and treatment and disposal of animal reservoirs with constant monitoring of the incidence of Leishmaniasis, and the parameters that influence on the occurrence of the parasitosis.