Trend promena morfo-motoričkog statusa devojčica različitog stepena uhranjenosti
Чланови комисијеPantelić, Saša
МетаподациПриказ свих података о дисертацији
Prepubescent age is a very sensitive developmental period. Development of physical characteristics is determined by many factors, and performance of motor tasks, among others, depends on the physical characteristics of children. One of the important aspects of development, which is associated with physical and motor development, is nutritional status. Nutritional status of children is one of the most important indicators of health, mental and physical capabilities and potential for normal and healthy growth and development. Increased body mass in overweight and obese children was often associated with a delay in motor development and creation of motor habits. Aims of this transversal study were to: 1) Determine the trend of changes in morpho-motoric status in subjects of different ages, depending on nutritional status; 2) Determine the differences in morpho-motoric status; 3) Determine the trend of relations of morphological characteristics and motor abilities. The overall sample consi...sted of 418 subjects, aged 7 to 10, who attended elementary schools in the town of Nis. Based on age, subjects were divided into four subsamples. Subjects were also divided into three groups, depending on nutritional status (BMI). The first group consisted of normal weight, the second of overweight, and the third of obese subjects. The evaluation of morphological characteristics was determined by measures of longitudinal dimensionality (body height, leg length, arm length), transversal dimensionality (shoulder width, pelvic width and hip width), circular dimensionality (thorax volume, upper arm volume, thigh volume and calf volume) and body weight, as well as with measures of subcutaneous fat tissue (triceps skin folds, sub-scapular skin folds, abdominal skin folds, thigh skin folds and medial calf skin folds). Motor abilities (explosive strength, coordination and speed), were determined by applying a battery of nine tests. For the assessment of explosive strength, measuring instruments in the form of Plyometric jump, Hyperextension-twist-throw and Standing depth jump were used. Coordination skills were evaluated by using measuring instruments Horizontal jump rope, 20 sidesteps with a baton and Running and rolling. For the evaluation of speed, measuring instruments Hand tapping, Foot tapping against a wall and 5×10 meter run were used. For all variables, depending on age and nutritional status, basic parameters of descriptive statistics were calculated. Differences between the groups were determined using MANOVA/ANOVA and LSD Post Hoc test. Relations between morphological characteristics and motor abilities were determined by cross-correlation matrices and canonical correlation analysis. Trends of changes were identified based on the mean values, while their statistical significance was determined by using ANOVA. Trends of relations were established on the basis of first canonical correlation coefficients between corresponding pairs of canonical factors, as well as on the basis of determination coeficients of canonical factors. The results indicate that trends of changes in morpho-motoric status show growth, regardless of nutritional status, but continued growth and development of morphological characteristics and motor abilities was recorded only in normal weight subjects. Nutritional status is an important factor for harmonious growth and development of physical characteristics and motor abilities in prepubescent girls. Generally speaking, in all age groups, depending on nutritional status, significant differences in almost all morphological characteristics were determined, especially in pelvic width, hip width, voluminosity and body mass, as well as in subcutaneous fat tissue. Quantitatively, the obese subjects had the highest values, followed by overweight subjects, while normal weight subjets had the lowest values. The established differences in motor abilities indicate that normal weight subjects achieved significantly better results in explosive leg strength, running speed and coordination (running and rolling), compared to the overweight and obese subjects. Overweight subjects were significantly better than the subjects of normal weight in frequency speed, as well as in explosive leg strength, compared to obese subjects. Obese subjects were significantly better in explosive arm strength, compared to normal weight and overweight subjects. These differences in morpho-motoric status generated morphological and motor structures in normal weight and overweight girls, as per the analyzed ages, whose relations had different statistical significance (due to the insufficient number of obese subjects,only trends of relations between normal weight and overweight subjects were observed). There were no significant relations between morphological characteristics and motor abilities in normal weight subjects aged seven, eight and nine years, which indicates that the level of motor abilities is independent of morphological characteristics. Significant relations recorded at the age of 10 indicate that the growth of bone tissue, especially in length, with proportionally increase in body weight and soft tissue volume, allows achieving better results by normal weight subjects in strength, coordination and speed. In overweight subjects a high level of correlation between the level of motor abilities and morphological characteristics was determined in almost all age groups, except for the group of nine year old subjects. Generally speaking, relations indicate that the growth of bone tissue, accompanied by disproportionate enlargement of body mass and volume, acts as a disrupting factor in the realization of motor tasks used for the assessment of explosive leg strength, coordination and speed, while has a positive effect on explosive arm strength. Based on the values of the determination coefficients between the first pairs of canonical factors in each age group, it can be concluded that the relations between morphological characteristics and motor abilities are significant in overweight subjects of all age groups analyzed. More significant changes, in the form of continuous decrease in trend of relations during the ages, were recorded in normal weight subjects. Based on the foregoing, it can be concluded that nutritional status is an important factor for harmonious growth and development of morphological characteristics and motor abilities in prepubescent girls aged 7 to 10. Increased body mass in overweight and obese subjects has a negative impact on the realization of motor tasks that require explosive leg strength, speed and coordination, and a positive impact on tаsks that require explosive arm strength. In all age groups, obtained relations between morphological characteristics and motor abilities were much more significant in overweight girls. Due to the greater development of fat tissue, negative influence of growth and development of morphological characteristics on explosive leg strength, coordination and speed was noted, as well as a positive effect on explosive arm strength.