Show simple item record

The social interaction of students with developmental disabilities in primary schools

dc.contributor.advisorSpasenović, Vera
dc.contributor.otherHebib, Emina
dc.contributor.otherMatović, Nataša
dc.creatorĐević, Rajka S.
dc.date.accessioned2020-07-03T10:03:33Z
dc.date.available2020-07-03T10:03:33Z
dc.date.issued2015-12-11
dc.identifier.urihttp://eteze.bg.ac.rs/application/showtheses?thesesId=2416
dc.identifier.urihttp://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/handle/123456789/4550
dc.identifier.urihttps://fedorabg.bg.ac.rs/fedora/get/o:10424/bdef:Content/download
dc.identifier.urihttp://vbs.rs/scripts/cobiss?command=DISPLAY&base=70036&RID=526538903
dc.description.abstractU savremenoj pedagoškoj teoriji i praksi preovladava shvatanje da uĉestalost i kvalitet socijalnih interakcija koje pojedinac ostvaruje u mreţi socijalnih odnosa u znaĉajnoj meri oblikuju njegov socijalni, emocionalni i kognitivni razvoj. U literaturi se posebna paţnja posvećuje vršnjaĉkim interakcijama koje se smatraju posebno znaĉajnim za aktuelni i kasniji razvoj individue. Pored prouĉavanja socijalnih interakcija tipiĉne vršnjaĉke populacije, mnoga istraţivanja su usmerena na ispitivanje karakteristika socijalnih interakcija uĉenika sa smetnjama u razvoju. Uopšteni nalazi istraţivanja koja su realizovana u okviru redovnih škola upućuju na ograniĉenost socijalnih interakcija uĉenika sa razliĉitim razvojnim smetnjama, kako po pitanju kvantiteta, tako i po pitanju njihovog kvaliteta. Cilj ovog istraţivanja jeste ispitivanje uĉestalosti i kvaliteta socijalnih interakcija uĉenika sa razvojnim smetnjama i vršnjaka koji nemaju smetnje u razvoju u osnovnoj školi. Da bi se ostvario uvid u socijalne interakcije uĉenika sa smetnjama u razvoju i vršnjaka koji nemaju smetnje, primenjeno je sistematsko posmatranje njihovih interakcija. Ovakav pristup je omogućio neposredno sagledavanje prirode i uĉestalosti socijalnih interakcija uĉenika sa smetnjama u razvoju u realnom, svakodnevnom školskom kontekstu. Pored toga, primenjene su i sociometrijske tehnike istraţivanja koje su obezbedile nalaze o socijalnoj prihvaćenosti i socijalnom statusu uĉenika sa smetnjama u razvoju, kao i prijateljskim odnosima koje uspostavljaju. Za prikupljanje podataka korišćena su ĉetiri istraţivaĉka instrumenta: dva protokola za sistematsko posmatranje socijalnih interakcija uĉenika sa smetnjama u razvoju i njihovih vršnjaka bez smetnji u razvoju koji su posebno konstruisani za potrebe ovog istraţivanja (jedan je primenjen na školskom ĉasu, a jedan na školskom odmoru); sociometrijski upitnik i rejting skala (skala procene). Istraţivanjem su obuhvaćeni uĉenici trećeg i ĉetvrtog razreda osnovnih škola sa podruĉja grada Beograda. Uzorak je ĉinilo 30 uĉenika sa smetnjama u razvoju i 30 uĉenika vi bez smetnji u razvoju. To znaĉi da je sistematskim posmatranjem, primenjenom u ovom istraţivanju, bilo obuhvaćeno ukupno 60 uĉenika. S obzirom na to da odeljenja redovne osnovne škole pohaĊaju uĉenici sa razliĉitim smetnjama u razvoju, nismo se ograniĉili na jednu razvojnu smetnju. Iz tog razloga uzorak su ĉinili uĉenici sa razliĉitim smetnjama u razvoju, odnosno, uĉenici sa ograniĉenim intelektualnim sposobnostima (16), uĉenici sa autizmom (6), uĉenici sa aspergerovim sindromom (2), uĉenici sa disleksijom i disgrafijom (2), uĉenici sa oštećenjem sluha (2), uĉenik sa cerebralnom paralizom (1) i uĉenik sa višestrukim smetnjama (1). Kriterijum prilikom odabira ovih uĉenika bio je postojanje Plana prilagođavanja ili Individualnog obrazovnog plana (IOP) koji se za ove uĉenike posebno kreiraju kako bi se škola i nastava prilagodile njihovim potrebama. Nakon što je u odreĊenom odeljenju izabran uĉenik sa smetnjama u razvoju koji će biti posmatran, pristupilo se sluĉajnom izboru uĉenika bez smetnji u razvoju koji je istog pola kao i uĉenik sa razvojnim smetnjama. Istraţivanje je sprovedeno u 30 odeljenja iz 15 osnovnih škola, i to 13 odeljenja trećeg i 17 odeljenja ĉetvrtog razreda. Osnovni kriterijum za odabir odeljenja koja su uĉestvovala u istraţivanju bio je prisustvo uĉenika sa smetnjama u razvoju u datom odeljenju, što znaĉi da je uzorak odeljenja bio nameran. U svakom odeljenju dva posmatraĉa su istovremeno posmatrala socijalne interakcije jednog uĉenika sa smetnjama u razvoju i jednog uĉenika bez smetnji. Posmatranje socijalnih interakcija uĉenika sa smetnjama u razvoju i vršnjaka bez smetnji vršeno je na ĉasovima redovne nastave i na školskim odmorima. Posmatranje je obavljeno na 30 ĉasova srpskog jezika, 30 ĉasova matematike i 30 ĉasova likovne kulture, kao i na 60 malih i 30 velikih odmora. To znaĉi da su uĉenici posmatrani na 90 školskih ĉasova i isto toliko odmora. S obzirom na to da je istraţivanje podrazumevalo i primenu sociometrijskog upitnika i rejting skale koje su popunjavali svi uĉenici iz odeljenja obuhvaćenih istraţivanjem, to znaĉi da je u ovom segmentu istraţivanja uĉestvovalo ukupno 724 uĉenika. Osnovni zakljuĉci ovog istraţivanja pokazuju da uĉenici sa smetnjama u razvoju znaĉajno reĊe iniciraju socijalne interakcije sa vršnjacima u poreĊenju sa uĉenicima koji nemaju smetnje u razvoju. Pored toga, uĉenici sa smetnjama u razvoju reĊe prihvataju interakcije inicirane od strane drugih uĉenika, te imaju manji broj interakcija koje se vii razvijaju u duţe socijalne razmene. TakoĊe, uĉenici sa smetnjama u razvoju znaĉajno reĊe uĉestvuju u zajedniĉkim aktivnostima tokom školskih ĉasova kada se uporede sa vršnjacima koji nemaju smetnje u razvoju. Kada se sagledaju podaci koji se odnose na socijalne interakcije u zajedniĉkim aktivnostima na školskim odmorima, zakljuĉak je da postoji izraţena razlika meĊu posmatranim grupama uĉenikama, i to u korist uĉenika bez smetnji u razvoju, koji su znaĉajno ĉešće i duţe bili u zajedniĉkim aktivnostima sa vršnjacima iz odeljenja. Uĉenici sa smetnjama u razvoju su znaĉajno manje socijalno prihvaćeni u odeljenju u odnosu na vršnjake koji nemaju smetnje u razvoju. TakoĊe, uĉenici sa smetnjama u razvoju imaju nepovoljniji socijalni status u odeljenju od uĉenika bez smetnji u razvoju. Na to ukazuju podaci o većoj sociometrijskoj „zanemarenosti“ i „odbaĉenosti“ ovih uĉenika, kao i to što su reĊe svrstani u kategoriju „popularnih“ uĉenika, kada se uporede sa uĉenicima koji nemaju smetnje u razvoju. Pored toga, uĉenici sa smetnjama u razvoju imaju manji broj ostvarenih prijateljstava u odnosu na svoje vršnjake bez smetnji u razvoju. Adekvatnija pripremljenost prosvetnog kadra za rad u inkluzivnoj školi, kao i podsticanje nastavnika da intenzivnije primenjuju nastavne strategije koje unapreĊuju socijalno funkcionisanje uĉenika (na primer, kooperativno uĉenje, razliĉite vršnjaĉke strategije), mogli bi doprineti unapreĊivanju socijalnih interakcija uĉenika sa smetnjama u razvoju u redovnoj školi. Pored toga, vaţno je intenzivirati istraţivanja koja bi se bavila uzrocima nepovoljnijeg socijalnog poloţaja ovih uĉenika, kao i primenom i efektima odreĊenih interventnih programa koji bi imali za cilj unapreĊivanje socijalnih veština uĉenika sa smetnjama u razvoju.sr
dc.description.abstractIn modern pedagogical theory and practice the opinion prevails that the frequency and quality of the social interaction which an individual achieves within the network of his/her social relationships significantly shapes his/her social, emotional and cognitive development. Special attention in the literature is dedicated to peer interaction which is considered as particularly significant for both an individual‟s current and later development. In addition to studying the social interaction of typical peer populations, many studies are directed towards examining the characteristics of the social interaction of students with developmental disabilities. The general findings of research carried out within the frame of regular schools point out the limitation of the social interaction of students with various developmental disabilities both in terms of quantity and quality. The goal of this work is research into the frequency and quality of the social interaction of school children with developmental disabilities and their peers who do not have such disabilities in primary schools. In order to gain greater insight into the social interaction of both students with developmental disabilities and those without, systematic observation of their interaction was carried out. Such an approach enabled direct observations of the nature and frequency of the social interaction of school children with development disabilities in a real, everyday school context. Sociometric research techniques were also used, providing findings on the social acceptance and social status of students with developmental disabilities as well as the friendships they make. Four research instruments were used for data collection: two protocols for the systematic observation of the social interaction of students with developmental disabilities and their peers without such disabilities which were specially constructed for this study (one was implemented in class, and one during the break), a socio-metric questionnaire and a rating scale (estimation scale). ix The research encompassed third and fourth grade primary school pupils from the Belgrade City area. The sample was made up of 30 pupils with developmental disabilities and 30 without. This means that a total of 60 pupils were included in the systematic monitoring carried out in this research. Considering that students with various disabilities attend regular classes in primary schools, we did not limit ourselves to one particular developmental disabilities. For that reason the sample consisted of pupils with various developmental disabilities, i.e. students with limited intellectual abilities (16), students with autism (6), students with Asperger‟s syndrome (2), students with dyslexia and dysgraphia (2), students with hearing impairments (2), a student with cerebral palsy (1) and a student with multiple disabilities (1). The criterion for the selection of these students was the existence of the Adaptation Plan or the Individual Education Plan (IOP) which are specially created for those pupils in order to adapt the school and teaching to their needs. Once the pupils with developmental disabilities who would be monitored were selected from certain classes, a random selection of pupils without disabilities of the same gender was made. The research was carried out in 30 classes from 15 primary schools; 13 third grade and 17 fourth grade classes. The main criterion for the selection of those classes which participated in the research was the presence of students with developmental disabilities in the class, which means that the class sample was deliberate. In each class two observers simultaneously observed the social interactions of one student with developmental disabilities and one student without. The observation of their social interaction was carried out during both the regular lessons and breaks. The observation took place during 30 Serbian lessons, 30 Maths lessons, 30 Art lessons and 60 small and 30 big breaks. That means that the children were monitored during 90 school lessons and the same number of breaks. Taking into consideration the fact that the research also included a socio-metric questionnaire and rating scales which were completed by all the students in the classes included in this research, a total of 724 students participated in this segment of the study. The main conclusion of this research points out that students with developmental disabilities initiate social interaction with their peers significantly less frequently than students without such disabilities In addition, students with developmental disabilities x accept interactions initiated by other students more rarely, and therefore have a smaller number of interactions which develop into longer social exchanges. Furthermore, students with developmental disabilities participate in joint activities during school lessons much less often than their peers without developmental disabilities. When we examine the data which refer to social interaction in joint activities during breaks, the conclusion is that there is a distinct difference among the observed groups of students, to the benefit of those students without developmental disabilities, who were involved in joint activities with their classmates significantly more often and for longer periods of time. Students with developmental disabilities are significantly less socially accepted in the class compared with their peers without such disabilities. Students with developmental disabilities also have a less favourable social status in the class. This is shown in the data pertaining to the higher socio-metric „neglect‟ and „rejection‟ of those children, as well as their being rarely aligned in the category of „popular‟ students in comparison with their peers without developmental disabilities. Furthermore, students with developmental disabilities achieve a smaller number of friendships than their peers without disabilities. The improved preparation of educational staff for work in inclusive schools, as well as the stimulation of teachers to work more intensively on implementing teaching strategies which improve pupils‟ social functioning of (for instance, cooperative learning, different peer strategies), could contribute to the improvement of the social interaction of students with developmental disabilities in regular schools. In addition, it is also important to intensify research into the causes of the unfavourable social position of those pupils as well as the implementation and effects of certain intervention programs whose goal would be the improvement of the social skills of students with developmental disabilities.en
dc.formatapplication/pdf
dc.languagesr
dc.publisherУниверзитет у Београду, Филозофски факултетsr
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MESTD/Integrated and Interdisciplinary Research (IIR or III)/47008/RS//
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MESTD/Basic Research (BR or ON)/179034/RS//
dc.rightsopenAccessen
dc.sourceУниверзитет у Београдуsr
dc.subjectsocijalna interakcijasr
dc.subjectsocial interactionen
dc.subjectstudents with developmental disabilitiesen
dc.subjectprimary schoolen
dc.subjectinclusive educationen
dc.subjectuĉenici sa smetnjama u razvojusr
dc.subjectosnovna školasr
dc.subjectinkluzivno obrazovanjesr
dc.titleSocijalna interakcija učenika sa smetnjama u razvoju u osnovnoj školisr
dc.titleThe social interaction of students with developmental disabilities in primary schoolsen
dc.typedoctoralThesis
dc.rights.licenseBY-NC-ND
dcterms.abstractСпасеновић, Вера; Хебиб, Емина; Матовић, Наташа; Ђевић, Рајка С.; Социјална интеракција ученика са сметњама у развоју у основној школи; Социјална интеракција ученика са сметњама у развоју у основној школи;
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/bitstream/id/27522/Disertacija217.pdf
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/bitstream/id/27523/Djevic_Rajka_izvestaj_komisije.pdf


Files in this item

Thumbnail
Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record