Razvoj i promene u afektivnoj vezanosti u adolescenciji
Development and change of attachment in adolescence
DoktorandVukčević, Branimir N.
Članovi komisijeZlatanović, Ljubiša
MetapodaciPrikaz svih podataka o disertaciji
Plenty of scientific papers on attachment that was created during the twentieth and beginning of this century show that the attachment system is an important factor in the development of children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the development and change of attachment of adolescents. The sample of empirical study included 310 adolescents aged 14 to 19, i.e. eighth grade elementary school students, second and fourth grade high school students. Areas of inquiry in this study were: 1) hierarchy of attachment in both sexes, 2) transfer of attachment 3) the congruence patterns of attachment and the importance of secure parental and peer attachment to adolescent adjustment, 4) the association between strength (power) and dimensions of attachment, and 5) the problem of differentiation/generalization of attachment during adolescence. In order to explore dimensions of distance (internal working model of other) and anxiety (internal working model of self) we used a DAR ...questionnaire (short form of ECR-R, Fraley et al.; translated in Serbian and constructed by Vukcevic). For the classification of adolescents in attachment patterns of attachment we used the data obtained by Rash analysis scale of DAR questionnaire. To test the strength and hierarchy of attachment, we used the version of WhoTo questionnaire in Serbian language (Hazan and Zeifman; translated and adapted by Vukcevic). We used a Self Concept questionnaire by the author Opacic; we also used a ROK questionnaire (Abbreviation in Serbian of the Relational self competence questionnaire, constructed by Vukcevic), which among other things, examines the self worth in relations with father, mother and best friend. To test communication, trust and alienation in relationships with parents and peers, we used the version of IPPA-R in the Serbian language (Arsmden and Greenberg; translated and revised by Vukcevic). Socio-demographic variables, variables that indicate the degree of consumption of alcoholic beverages, cigarettes, duration of the relationship with best friend, school achievement (the average of school marks at the end of previous school year) and the present number of unexcused absences from school, were examined separate questionnaire that was designed for this study. IX 1) The findings suggest that the hierarchy of attachment develops differently during adolescence depending on the sex of the respondents. At girls, the hierarchy of attachment has a stable structure in which the mother is on the first, a friend on the second, a sibling on the third rank, as a father figure slowly falling in the hierarchy during adolescence. At boys, both parents are all the time in the top of the attachment hierarchy, and therefore father figure is more important for boys than girls. The role and support of father in development of mail adolescents should be more investigated. Also, at boys, family and peer figures in the attachment hierarchy become consistent to the fourth grade; this happened most likely due to differences in the development of gender identity. Boys strive toward autonomy more than girls, so boys must develop and use attachment system in close relationships out family context more than girls. 2) In this paper the transfer of attachment is defined as a process of internal working models of attachment to parents on internal working models of attachment for a friend, which in turn impact on the strenght of attachment for a friend. This process here is conceptualized as the influence of adolescents` attachment to mother on attachment to best friend (peer figure), and as the influence of adolescents` attachment to father on attachment to best friend. As a moderator of this action, we examined the strengths of attachment to mother and father, self-esteems in relation with mother and with father, and variable named transfers` index and which expressed the level of difference between the strenght of attachment for a friend and the average of attachment strenghts to mother and father. For examining transfer, we used the Hayes` SPSS macro that monitors models of mediation moderation. The findings show that the internal models of attachment to parents have effects on peer attachment through the same kind of internal models of attachment to peer. Strength of attachment to a father is a moderator transfer of attachment to parents towards friends. The strength of attachment to a father, the greater the transfer of attachment to father on peer attachment. Self-esteem in the relationship with a mother is a moderator transfer of attachment to the mother on peer attachment. The greater self-esteem in the relationship with a mother, the greater the transfer. The findings show that the index transfer is a moderator transfer of attachment from parents to peers, but the greater the change of the hierarchy attachment, the lower degree of transfer of attachment. Change of attachment hierarchy, which means that the peer figures X become more important than parents during adolescence serves to compensate for shaky quality of bond with parents and is not based on the transfer of attachment. Compensatory changes of attachment was based on the development of trust and communication with a close friend, while at the same time there is little trust, poor communication and alienation expressed in relation with the parental figures. 3) There was a confirmed accordance pattern of attachment to parents and close friends. Respondents who had a match secure attachment to parents and close friends were developing a more morality as an aspect of self concept and positive self worth in the relationship with a mother, father and close friends; also they smoke and drink alcohol less than other adolescents. However, the findings suggest that secure attachment to friends compensate for the negative effects of insecure attachment to parents on self concept. Secure attachment to parents or to peers as a support system provides better general aspects of adolescents' self-concept and acceptance of desirable behavior in a social context where these persons are located (which in turn may not always be favorable circumstances for the healthy development). 4) The findings suggest that secure and preoccupied pattern of attachment implies greater strength of attachment in relation to avoidant and fearful form of attachment. This finding indicates that adolescents who had positive model of other (attachment figure; i.e. mother, father, best friend) had significant more use of attachment system in relation with that figure, than adolescents who had negative model of other (the figure). 5) The findings suggest that during middle adolescence there is not either significant differentiation or generalization of attachment. These changes probably occurred in the transition from late childhood to early adolescence, and further changes of this kind should be examined in the late adolescence and early adulthood.