Novi kvantitativni kriteriumi procene stepena zagađenja životne sredine vodama sa organohlornim insekticidima
New quantitative criteria assess the degree of environmental water pollution with organochlorine insecticides
AuthorMarinović, Dragan D.
Committee membersMilenković, Slobodan
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Environmental pollution is the result of rapid urbanization, industrialization, transport development and intensive agricultural production with the constant introduction of new technologies. Since the middle of last century, a disproportion occurs between the increase in human population and the necessary renewal of natural resources. The problem of water protection is an integral part of the overall problem of protection, promotion and preservation of the environment. Water protection is a broad and complex topic, so it is interdisciplinary. Increased use of chemicals in agriculture, particularly organochlorine insecticides (OCI) plant protection products, lead to their increased amount in water. Although OCI are very toxic substances for wildlife, especially for humans, a large part of the population is exposed to their daily activities in small quantities. For many OCI there is not enough data on the toxicity and we can not perform an accurate assessment of security. Previous studi...es did not provide accurate information about the effects on human health at concentrations normally found in drinking water. OCI presence in drinking water is generally below the maximum allowable concentration, but repeated doses can cause chronic toxic effects. For these reasons, the main objective of cleaning water is getting water from the lower concentration of OCI. Standard methods of water purification do not remove pesticides, so it is necessary to introduce some additional treatment using coagulation, oxidation and adsorption agents. Many studies suggest a beneficial effect of water purification, activated carbon. Activated carbon is, today, considered the most effective substance in purification of water contaminated with OCI but the procedure is still under developement. Adsorption characteristics of activated carbon must meet the requirement of efficient water purification of organochlorine insecticides, and other substances that are prohibited in concentrations. For these reasons, the goal of research is to analyze the state of the burden of drinking and wastewater aggregate and individual OCI prescribed in the Regulations of the chemical quality of drinking water (Official Gazette of FRY, no. 42/98 and 44/99). The survey covered the following OCI: alpha-hexachloro cyclohexane, lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane. For some OCI values of maximum permissible concentrations are not organized in our normative and EU reulative. Therefore, the overall goal of the research is to establishing new criteria for each tested OCI. In addition, the aim of the research includes finding the most efficient method of water purification using commercial activated carbons. To achieve the objective of the survey water was analyzed from the water supply of the City of Kraljevo and waste water from fruit plants PIK „Takovo” and ZZ „Lunovo selo”. In the water samples qualitative and quantitative analysis of physical-chemical parameters were performed, total and individual OCI required by the current regulations. The analyzes were performed before and after the water purification. For the purification of water we used an experimental model of columns filled with four kinds of activated carbons, which can be found on the market. Physico-chemical analysis of water were made by following methods: · volumetric methods (volumetric determination of organic substances-consumption of KMnO4, calcium and magnesium); · electrochemical method (pH); · spectrophotometric methods (determination of nitrate, ammonia, iron); · chemical methods: chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solids, total organic carbon (TOC) and surface-active matters (SAM). Present organochlorine insecticides were treated according to the appropriate method of the EPA-608, a liquid-liquid extraction. The method is equally applicable for determination of organochlorine insecticides in drinking water and wastewater. Investigated organochlorine insecticides were detected by gas chromatography chromatograph "Perkin Elmer" 8500 with ECD detector, with appropriate columns . Quantitative data on the toxicity of the investigated physico-chemical parameters and specific organochlorine insecticides in water were obtained as the sum of the quotient of measured concentrations and corresponding boundary residue levels (MAC) taken from the applicable ordinances and regulations: Based on the objectives and the results obtained, among other things, following conclusions were derived: · Analysis of physico-chemical parameters and total organochlorine insecticides in samples of drinking water indicates that the water meets the standards of the Ordinance on the sanitary quality of drinking water (Official Gazette of FRY, no. 42/98 and 44/99). · The tap water: Institute of Public Health, Kraljevo and pumping stations Konarevo showed increased concentration of organochlorine insecticide heptachlor and aldrin, which is an alarming fact, and further extensive testing and water treatment are necessary. · The drinking water of the city of Kraljevo must be treated with activated carbon to meet standards given by the Regulations. · It was found that, of the tested commercial activated carbons, the best effect of drinking water treatment, based of physico-chemical parameters, total and individual OCI, achieved by column experimental model, which is filled with active carbon NORIT ROW-0.8. When it comes to changes in water quality predicted Regulation on hygienic drinking water. · The effect of wastewater treatment on the physical and chemical parameters, total and individual OCI is high and the best column in an experimental model which is filled with active carbon NORIT ROW-0.8, more than 92%. Treated waste water have, a pH value that is increased compared to the values predicted applicable statutes and regulations. · Based on the results of determining the toxicity of hazardous substances examined, it can be concluded that drinking and waste water must be purified. · Ordinance on Hazardous Substances in water prescribed values of maximum permissible levels for drinking water, wastewater and river waters are high and inadequate, we clearly identify our research. · The maximum allowable concentrations of organochlorine insecticides in rivers of all classes have changed and they need to be srticter because most cities is supplying drinking water from rivers that are not treated or only partially treated. · For waste water, regardless of whether they are discharged into the sewer or river must be established purification systems. The results of this study indicate the need for treatment of wastewater from industrial fruit before discharge to receiving waters. · This research suggests that the experimental model with active carbon NORIT ROW-0.8 is an efficient process for purification of water and that further research should focus on developing a commercial model. Its application would be particularly important in rural areas in order to obtain good quality water for irrigation. The overall objective of our research was to determine the value of the maximum allowable concentration, or new quantitative criteria for each tested organochlorine insecticide, but during the preparation of this dissertation in Serbia new rules and regulations were established: · Ordinance on the determination of surface water bodies and ground water, Official Gazette of RS, 96/10; · Ordinance on the parameters of the ecological and chemical status of surface water and chemical parameters and quantitative status of groundwater, Official Gazette of RS, 74/11 and · Regulation on limit values for pollutants in surface and ground waters and sediments and deadlines for their achievement, Official Gazette of RS, 50/12, who do not recognize the organochlorine insecticides such pollutants of surface, ground and waste water. Our obtained results provide evidence that the studied organochlorine insecticides belong to the pollutants and waste drinking water and justify the need for their return to the rules and regulations. There is a need of adopting new MAC values for all OCI that regulations and their harmonization with EU directives and guidelines of the WHO. Also, we should not forget that the purification of drinking and waste water especially from the present organochlorine insecticides, are increasingly necessary if we want to join Europe and to meet European standards for discharge of wastewater into the city sewers or rivers. To maintain the quality of surface, and therefore drinking water, following measures must be carried out: · rational and adequate use of fertilizers; · optimal use of protective equipment; · intensive channeling urban areas and settlements; · proper construction and siting landfills; · reduction of emissions from industry; · planning of green areas; · proper use of technology in agricultural production (land cultivation, land fragmentation, directional winds, relationships and waste disposal); · prohibition of discharges of waste water without treatment; · construction of a wastewater treatment plant; · regular control by the inspection and the others professional services in all phases and stages of various human activities. The results obtained during the research can be beneficial for everyone involved in assessing the level of environmental improvement, protection water and health protection.The research is of great public interest and has undoubted theoretical and practical significance.