Strategijske osnove i pravci razvoja turizma na teritoriji Republike Srbije
Strategic bases and development directions of tourism on the territory of the republic of Serbia
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During the second half of the XX century and at the very beginning of the XXI century, tourism became a specific social and economical phenomenon and, according to the number of the participants, the most massive phenomenon in world relations. Tourism, in modern conditions, represents a „leading world industry“, and its influence on the development process becomes more intensive. Namely, tourism has more and more significant role in economic and social development of other countries, as well as in everyday life of a contemporary man. Due to the economic and other effects which have been achieved during the last twenty years, tourism, as a business activity, became a developing opportunity of many countries, especially undeveloped countries and the ones which are in the process of development. Like many other countries, Serbia, with numerous hardships and issues in the past, was striving to develop tourism, with less or more success depends on the period of time it was going through in ...its social and economic development. As the main issues which were an obstacle towards a more successful tourism development in Serbia, are the following: insufficient scope of accumulation, inadequate infrastructure, lack of professional personnel, inadequate policy of tourism development, negative influence of political and economic opportunities, (especially during the last decade of the XX century) etc. Even though it has numerous and versatile potential for tourism development (favourable geographical position, specific relief and climate, versatile flora and fauna, numerous rivers and lakes, spas, protected natural reservations, cultural and historical monuments etc.), Serbia hasn’t managed, in a more successful manner, to place itself on the regional and international tourism market. Namely, according to the results it achieves in tourism, Serbia is far behind its main competitions (The Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and other countries), as well as some countries from its nearer surrounding (for instance, Croatia and Slovenia). For a constant long-term tourism development in Serbia, besides available tourism potentials, also are required great investments in the material base, following infrastructure, human resources, promotion, also in other complementary activities. Taking into consideration numerous strategic advantages which Serbia has for tourism development (above all, a positive relation of the citizens to tourism, extraordinary geostrategic position, big unused water potential, rather preserved space, rich archeological heritage, multiculturalism, reliable health protection system, recognizable spiritual creativity etc.), creators of economic and tourism policy, at the beginning of the XXI century, decided for its strategic development. In that direction, according to the available strategic base, are defined the most significant strategic objectives of tourism development in Serbia and also set the main directions of its further development. As the most significant strategic objectives of tourism development in Serbia are defined: improvement of the existing tourist supply, more aggressive placement on the international tourism market, stimulation of domestic tourism development, protection of the users of environmental and touristic services, as well as a selection and choice of target markets. Realization of the aforesaid objectives requires conducting certain strategies (for instance, strategies to differentiate touristic products/services, strategies of market segmentation, strategies of market penetration, market development, product development, strategies of diversification, prices differentiation, integration of business subjects in tourism etc.), and implementation of strategic control, whose aim is to carry out corrective actions. Tourism development in Serbia, amongst other things, should enable: more intensive economic growth, foreign currency income increase, higher employment, living standard growth and population’s life quality, improvement of the international image of Serbia, suitable and sustainable, not only tourism but economic and total social development of the country etc. Following the development vision of tourism in Serbia, special, strategic directions of its further development are: special aspect of the development, tourism economy development as a function of a complex economic development of Serbia, tourism as a factor of more even regional development, priority aspects of tourism development in Serbia, tourism promotion development, as well as education and the choice of adequate personnel in tourism. In order to harmonize mutual relations, which exist amongst various participants in tourism business, as well to harmonize them with European and world standards, it is necessary to modernize the existing, legislative decisions and more actively focus on adopting new ones (for instance, Law on spas). A modern tourism market characterize, amongst other things, fast and turbulent changes which require acceptance and implementation of the marketing concept, also the concept of strategic planning in tourism subjects’ business. Regarding this, it is necessary to implement methods, principles and strategic management techniques in managing contemporary companies dealing with tourism business activity. The aforesaid, especially requires well trained and professional management, as well as employees who will, analyzing all strategic forces and weaknesses, also be capable of foreseeing possible opportunities and hazards from the surrounding, comparative advantages for tourism development to change into real competitive advantages and thus enable a better position of Serbia, as a tourist destination, on the chosen target tourism markets.
Faculty:University of Niš, Faculty of Economy
Keywords:Turizam / tourism / tourism development / strategic bases of tourism development / strategic objectives of tourism development / strategic directions of tourism development / strategijski pravci / razvoj turizma
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