Демографски и социјални аспекти родне неравноправности у Србији, од половине 20. века
Demographic and social aspects of gender inequality in Serbia from second half of 20th century
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Although gender inequality has drawn researchers’ attention for many decades, it still is a relevant research topic and a current social issue. At the end of 20th century, various political subjects’ engagement is reinforced, aiming to resolve gender gap in all spheres. However, social inequality between women and men is complex and deeply immerged in the social structure. Many gender issues are relevant for the demographic development and demography must not neglect this social phenomenon. The biggest part of this dissertation consists of the social-demographic analysis of male and female population in Serbia, based on the relevant census data. Younger middle-aged women are married and have high level of education more often than men, but they are also dependent more often. There are favorable sociodemographic characteristics of older middle-aged men and male population over 65 years. Among elder women there is a significantly widespread widowhood, the level of education is more disad...vantageous compared with men and their economic dependence is distinctly visible. Regarding economic activity, there are gender differences connected with the social-professional stucture relevant to present social inequality. There are differences between women and men regarding marital behavior as well as the education. However, the differences in economic activity are not to be limited to the effects of the conduct. Women`s employment is frequently regarded as a variable to decision-making about motherhoood and the reproductive behavior. In contrast, creating the conditions for optimal reconciliation of family and work requirements for both sexes goes beoyond resolving gender inequality. Majority of indicators witness the disadvantages of Central Serbia’s (Belgrade excluded) female population compared to women in Belgrade and in Vojvodina. The same is true for women in rural areas compared to women living in the cities. Hence, women’s overall standing and social position is dependent on economic and cultural conditions of a particular region, not disregarding their economic, marital and education status. Several indicators show the disadvantages of the male population compared with female. One of the indicators is life expectation, which affects disadvantageous socio-demographic characteristics of female population. The share of highly educated among younger middle-aged men is less not only related to women but also elder men. Negative effects of social transitions during the last decade of 20th century are noticed regarding economic activity of both sexes, but female population has suffered a more significant setback. Gender perspective is indispensable for understanding the demographic reality. Gender differences should be highlighted from both female and male standpoint, while carrying out research of various demographic processes and phenomena.