Razvoj metodologije za održivo upravljanje zasipanjem akumulacionih jezera nanosom
Committee membersMilićević, Dragan
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Reservoirs formed by the construction of dams on river courses, provide water supply used for the population and industry, irrigation of land reclamation areas, electricity production, and other needs. In the last century, the number of large dams in the world has grown from about 1,000 to over 37,000, of which 85% have been built in the last 50 years. The total volume of reservoirs that have been built to date has been estimated at over 7,000 km3. Of that, it is estimated that one-third belongs to the so-called dead space that cannot be used. Reservoirs in Macedonia also face the problem of capacity loss caused by sedimentation. Based on detailed, mainly field researches conducted in the eighties and nineties of the last century, it was determined that a significant part of the transported sediments in the river network, about 3x106 m3/year, is retained in natural and artificial lakes. Following modern trends in science, this paper proposes a methodology for determining the production... and transport of sediments in the basin, as well as defining the sedimentation rate in reservoirs. Advanced, physically based computational models for simulation of natural hydrological, erosive, and transport processes in the catchment - river network - reservoirs system were applied. The proposed methodology is a kind of combination of hydrological and erosion model of catchment areas and hydrodynamic model in open streams. The processing of a huge amount of data was done using an advanced GIS platform, which in recent years has emerged as an indispensable tool in this type of analysis. The application of the proposed methodology was made on the example of the Tikves reservoir, one of the largest artificial reservoirs in Macedonia. Long term modeling of hydrological and erosive processes in the basin and transport processes in the river network was done using the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. SWAT is a continuous, semi-distributed and process-based river basin model capable of simulation over long periods of time. The model was calibrated and verified on the basis of available data on water and sediment flows collected from existing measuring stations located along the main river flow in the basin. To overcome the high uncertainty problems that accompany distributed hydrological modeling, a Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Algorithm (SUFI-2) was used in this study for combined model calibration and uncertainty analysis. Modeling of the spatial distribution of sediment through the Tikveš reservoir in the analyzed period was performed using the hydrodynamic model SRH-1D (Sedimentation and River Hydraulics - One Dimension). The paper also proposes possible measures and activities for sustainable management and control of sedimentation in the reservoir, which with some adaptation depending on local conditions can be applied to other reservoirs in the country. The long-term effects of certain measures can be efficiently simulated using the proposed model. At the end of the paper, recommendations are given for further research and for improving the results of simulations of the models used in this research.