Unos soli u uzorku odraslog stanovništva Novog Sada
Salt intake in a sample of adult population of Novi Sad
Committee membersTrajković-Pavlović, Ljiljana
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The aim of the research was to investigate the average salt intake in a sample of adult population of the city of Novi Sad, by using the internationally recognized 24hour urinary sodium excretion method. The prevalence of excessive salt intake, one of the major risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, fluid retention and edema, osteoporosis, chronic kidney disease, stomach cancer and other diseases associated with excessive salt intake, was determined for the first time in the country. The correlation of salt intake and body mass index and blood pressure was assessed, as well as knowledge, attitude and practice of respondents regarding harmful effects of excessive salt intake. The investigation was conducted as an observational analytical cross-sectional study among 150 eligible adult residents of the city of Novi Sad (75 women and 75 men), aged 18-65, referred for a preventive health check-up in the Institute of Public Health of Vojvodina and Insti...tute of Occupational Health Novi Sad, in the period February 18th - April 29th 2011, and January 09th and April 30th 2012. The initial sample of 296 respondents met the inclusion criteria, of which 146 examinees were excluded by exclusion criteria. The estimated average salt intake in the sample was 12.12 ± 4.79 g; 14.22 ± 4.98 g in men, significantly higher than the average of 10.02 ± 3.54 g in women. Nearly all of the subjects exceeded the World Health Organization population salt intake goal of 5 g a day, and none of them consumed the amount of salt recommended in non-pharmacological treatment of hypertension. Daily salt intake was significantly higher in obese and subjects with central body fat distribution compared to non-obese subjects. There was a positive correlation between body mass index and daily salt intake (28 percents of the variability of BMI may be attributed to the amount of daily salt intake). There was a positive correlation between salt intake and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, while 7 percents and 8 percents of variability of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, can be explained by the amount of daily salt intake. Almost all subjects were aware that excessive salt intake may damage their health and lead to hypertension, stroke and chronic kidney disease. A high percentage of subjects had high level of knowledge regarding salt content in most foods. More than half of the respondents knew the amount of the recommended daily salt intake. Only 28 percents of subjects knew that processed food is the main dietary source of salt, and 77 percents of them did not recognize bread and rolls as food with high salt content. A low level of knowledge was established regarding the association between excessive salt intake and gastric cancer, osteoporosis and dementia. Older more likely than younger respondents, knew that too much salt is associated with hypertension and stroke and knew the amount of salt in certain types of food. Frequent use of salt during cooking and at the table was reported by 2/3, and 20 percents of subjects, respectively. Most of the members of population in question had an appropriate attitude towards the need of labeling the salt content and reducing salt intake. A statistically high salt intake was recorded in all examinees regardless of their knowledge, attitude and practice regarding salt usage. The established average salt intake of 12.12±4.79g in the examined sample is substantially higher than recommended by World Health Organization. Thus, labelling, reformulation of processed food by reducing salt content, as well as raising population awareness in regard to main dietary sources of salt, are cornerstones of the salt reduction strategy in given population.