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Teachers' intercultural sensitivity and beliefs about cultural differences in the school context

dc.contributor.advisorPetrović, Danijela S.
dc.contributor.otherMacura, Sunčica
dc.contributor.otherVranješević, Jelena
dc.contributor.otherJovanović Milanović, Olja
dc.creatorDimitrijević, Bojana
dc.date.accessioned2020-03-13T23:34:21Z
dc.date.available2020-03-13T23:34:21Z
dc.date.available2020-07-03T09:54:33Z
dc.date.issued2019-12-23
dc.identifier.urihttp://eteze.bg.ac.rs/application/showtheses?thesesId=7358
dc.identifier.urihttp://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/handle/123456789/12225
dc.identifier.urihttps://fedorabg.bg.ac.rs/fedora/get/o:21641/bdef:Content/download
dc.identifier.urihttp://vbs.rs/scripts/cobiss?command=DISPLAY&base=70036&RID=531201175
dc.description.abstractPredmet ovog rada su uverenja nastavnika razredne nastave u vezi sa učenicima kulturnog porekla različitog od većinskog. Uverenja nastavnika o kulturnim razlikama i učenicima manjinskog kulturnog porekla su relativno često bila predmet istraživanja. Međutim, prethodne studije nisu situirale svoje razmatranje na preseku teorijskih doprinosa različitih disciplina koje su usredsređene na proučavanje interkulturne1 interakcije i percepcije kulturnog „drugog”. Stoga su u uvodnom delu ovog rada prikazani i kritički razmatrani međusobno povezani doprinosi različitih disciplina. Prvi segment uvoda obuhvata značenja i određenja multikulturnog i interkulturnog obrazovanja, alternativne obrazovne pristupe, kao i teorijska objašnjenja pozicije učenika manjinskog porekla u obrazovanju (perspektiva o deficitu, opozicionom kulturnom identitetu i referentnom okviru, perspektiva o kulturnim razlikama, pristupi usredsređeni na pitanje sistemske reprodukcije nejednakosti u obrazovnom kontekstu). U drugom segmentu analizirani su odabrani koncepti i teorijski modeli koji su dizajnirani da objasne ishode u interkulturnoj interakciji. Poseban naglasak bio je na kritičkom razmatranju Razvojnog modela interkulturne osetljivosti Miltona Beneta. Konačno, u trećem segmentu uvodnog poglavlja predstavili smo i razmotrili različite konceptualizacije uverenja i srodnih konstrukata o kulturnim grupama u okviru socijalne psihologije, kao i percepciju kulturnog drugog u kulturalnoj psihologiji. Deo ovog segmenta čini i selektivan pregled rezultata dosadašnjih istraživanja o uverenjima nastavnika i studenata učiteljskih fakulteta o kulturnim razlikama. Istraživanje je imalo za cilj da unapredi razumevanje u vezi sa tim kako nastavnici opažaju i interpretiraju kulturne razlike, da osvetli njihova eksplicitna i implicitna uverenja o učenicima manjinskog porekla, kao i da Razvojni model interkulturne osetljivosti bude kritički preispitan, kako sa stanovišta logičke konzistentnosti pretpostavki modela, tako i spram nalaza sprovedenog empirijskog istraživanja. Iz ciljeva su izvedena tri istraživačka pitanja: a) koje će osnovne teme o 1 U okviru privatne prepiske sa prof. dr Ivanom Klajnom je ukazano da bi prikladnije bilo koristiti izraze multikulturno i interkulturno umesto multikulturalno ili interkulturalno. Sa druge strane, termin interkulturalno je zadržan u okviru naslova rada, s obzirom na to da je Veće naučnih oblasti društveno-humanističkih nauka Univerziteta u Beogradu donelo je odluku kojom se daje saglasnost na predlog teme doktorske disertacije sa ovim naslovom. učenicima manjinskog kulturnog porekla, njihovim porodicama i zajednicama biti zastupljene u iskazima nastavnika; b) da li će identifikovane teme biti kvalitativno distinktivne za poduzorke nastavnika koji su različitog nivoa interkulturne osetljivosti; c) da li će se identifikovane teme u iskazima o mađarskoj grupi kvalitativno razlikovati od tema identifikovanih u iskazima o romskoj grupi. Eksplicirano je da bi u skladu sa teorijskim pretpostavkama Razvojnog modela interkulturne osetljivosti bili oni nalazi koji ukazuju na zajednički obrazac uverenja o različitim kulturnim grupama unutar svakog od poduzorka (nivoa interkulturne osetljivosti), kao i na distinktivne, specifične obrasce za svaki poduzorak. Uzorak su sačinjavala 42 učitelja iz Vojvodine. Prikupljanje podataka je podrazumevalo dve sukcesivne faze. U prvoj fazi učitelji su učestvovali u realizaciji polustrukturiranih intervjua i iznosili svoje utiske u vezi sa hipotetičkom situacijom – kritičnim incidentom sa romskim ili alternativno sa mađarskim učenikom. U narednoj fazi (približno šest meseci nakon prve faze), sagovornicima je prosleđena elektronska verzija Inventara interkulturnog razvoja (IDI®). Na osnovu rezultata na Inventaru interkulturnog razvoja formirana su dva poduzorka: jedan koji su sačinjavali ispitanici na stadijumima poricanja i odbrane i drugi sa ispitanicima na stadijumu minimizacije. Pristup analizi podataka zasnivao se u najvećoj meri na kombinaciji induktivnog pristupa kvalitativnoj tematskoj analizi i utemeljene teorije zasnovane na konstruktivističkim principima. Odlučeno je da će biti uzeti u obzir kako sadržaj iskaza ispitanika (šta je ono o čemu ispitanici govore), tako i procesi opisivanja, objašnjavanja, opravdavanja i pozicioniranja sagovornika (kako izražavaju svoje predstave). Rezultati ovog istraživanja podupiru zaključke kritičke analize teorijskih pretpostavki Razvojnog modela interkulturne osetljivosti predstavljene u okviru uvodnog poglavlja. Oba poduzorka su ispoljila zajedničke tendencije ka hijerarhijskom vrednovanju i kontrastiranju različitih grupa, kao i obrazac umanjivanja značaja razlika i naglašavanja karakteristika koje su opažene kao univerzalno ljudske. Odabrane kulturne grupe (romska i mađarska) su sagledane kao međusobno veoma različite i unutar istog poduzorka: romska kulturna grupa iz perspektive kognitivnih i nekognitivnih deficita; mađarska kulturna grupa iz perspektive sklonosti ka homogenom grupisanju i preferiranju pripadnika sopstvene grupe. Percepciju kulturnih grupa u velikoj meri je oblikovala deljena socijalna reprezentacija o specifičnoj grupi, dok je razvojni stadijum interkulturne senzitivnosti bio od manjeg značaja. Postojale su, međutim, uočljive razlike među poduzorcima u pogledu učestalosti, intenziteta i eksplicitnosti hijerarhijske evaluacije grupa, pre svega kada je reč o percepciji romske kulturne grupe. U okviru poduzorka poricanja i odbrane ove tendencije su bile eksplicitnije, sagovornici su iznosili ekstremnije primere, negativne sudove i bili su skloniji hijerarhijskom vrednovanju i navođenju socio-bioloških objašnjenja razlika. Smatramo da je osnovni doprinos ovog istraživanja u domenu razvoja teorije. Naši nalazi i kritičko razmatranje pretpostavki Razvojnog modela interkulturne osetljivosti sugerišu da je ovaj model potrebno delimično rekonceptualizovati. Naime, stadijume ili faze pretpostavljenog jednosmernog razvoja interkulturne senzitivnosti trebalo bi razmatrati kao različite procese koji se mogu odvijati i simultano. Takođe smatramo da bi bilo potrebno da model inkorporira ideju da je percepcija kulturne grupe po pravilu, makar u izvesnoj meri, oblikovana deljenom socijalnom reprezentacijom. Zaključili smo i da bi dva diskutovana modela sadržaja stereotipa trebalo da budu udružena kako bi na zadovoljavajući način objasnili percepciju manjinskih kulturnih grupa koje su izložene intenzivnim i negativnim procenama (romska kulturna grupa u ovom istraživanju)sr
dc.description.abstractThe subject of this paper are the beliefs of primary school teachers about cultural minority pupils. Teachers' beliefs about cultural differences and minority pupils were a relatively common point of research prior to this study. However, former studies did not base their analysis on the cross-section of the theoretical contributions of different disciplines focused on intercultural interaction and perception of the cultural "other". Therefore, in the introductory part of this thesis their interrelated contributions were presented and critically examined. The first segment of the introduction comprises meanings and definitions of multicultural and intercultural education, alternative educational approaches, as well as theoretical explanations for the status of minority pupils in education (the deficit perspective, oppositional cultural identity and frame of reference, the cultural difference perspective, approaches focusing on systematic reproduction of inequality in the educational context). In the second segment, the selected concepts and theoretical models designed to explain outcomes in intercultural interaction were examined. The main emphasis is on critical examination of Milton Bennett’s Developmental model of intercultural sensitivity. Lastly, in the third segment, we present and assess conceptualizations of beliefs and related constructs about cultural groups in social psychology, as well as the perception of the cultural other in cultural psychology. One part of this segment also includes a selective review of prior research findings about the beliefs of teachers and students of teacher-training faculties about cultural differences in the school context. The research aims at enhancing our understanding of teachers' perception and interpretation of cultural differences, revealing their explicit and implicit beliefs about minority pupils and critically examining the Developmental model of intercultural sensitivity - both the logical consistency of the assumptions of the model, as well as its consistency with the research findings. Three research questions were derived from these aims: a) What are the main themes pertaining to cultural minority pupils, their parents and communities; b) Is there a qualitative distinction between the identified themes for the two subsamples characterized by different levels of intercultural sensitivity; c) Is there a qualitative distinction between the identified themes regarding the Hungarian minority group and the identified themes regarding the Roma minority group. It is stated that, in order for the given findings to be in accordance with the assumptions of the Developmental model of intercultural sensitivity, they should point to the existence of a common pattern of beliefs about different cultural groups within each subsample (level of intercultural sensitivity), as well as to the presence of distinctive, specific patterns for each subsample. The sample consists of 42 primary school teachers from the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. Data collection was organized in two successive phases. In the first phase, the teachers participated in semi-structured interviews and offered their insight about the hypothetical situation - critical incident with a Roma pupil or a Hungarian pupil, alternatively. In the following phase (approximately six months after) an online version of the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI®) was distributed to the participants. Based on the participants' IDI® score, two subsamples were formed. The first subsample consists of teachers in denial and defense stages, whereas the second subsample consists of participants in a minimization stage. Analysis and interpretation of the data were based on a predominantly inductive approach to qualitative thematic analysis and a constructivist approach to grounded theory. The decision was made to take into account the content of statements (what participants were saying), as well as participants’ processes of describing, explaining, justifying and positioning interlocutors (how they expressed their views). The results support the conclusions of critical analysis based on the theoretical assumptions the Developmental model of intercultural sensitivity, presented in the introductory chapter. Both subsamples exhibit common tendencies towards hierarchical evaluation and contrasting of different groups, as well as the patterns of minimizing differences and emphasizing characteristics that were perceived as universally human. The selected cultural groups (Roma and Hungarian) were perceived very differently even within the same subsample: Roma cultural group from the perspective of cognitive and non-cognitive deficits; Hungarian cultural group from the perspective of tendencies towards homogeneous grouping and in-group preferences. Perception of the two cultural groups was strongly influenced by the social representation of the specific cultural group, whereas the developmental stage of intercultural sensitivity appeared to be of smaller significance. There were, however, notable differences between the subsamples in terms of frequency, intensity and explicitness of the hierarchical evaluation of groups, primarily in regard to the perception of the Roma cultural group. Within the subsample of denial and defense the tendency was more explicit; participants conveyed more extreme examples, negative judgments, were more prone to hierarchical evaluation and offered socio-biological explanations of differences. We believe that this study principally contributes to the development of theory. Firstly, our findings, as well as critical examination of the assumptions of the Developmental model of intercultural sensitivity, suggest that the model should be partially re-conceptualized. Namely, stages or phases in the presumed unidirectional developmental progression of intercultural sensitivity should be addressed as different processes that could be simultaneous. Further, it is suggested that the Model should incorporate the notion that perception of specific cultural groups is shaped by a shared social representation, at least to some extent. We also conclude that the two discussed models of stereotype content should be combined in order to offer a satisfactory explanation to the perception of cultural minority groups that are exposed to intense negative judgment (the Roma cultural group in our research)en
dc.formatapplication/pdf
dc.languagesr
dc.publisherУниверзитет у Београду, Филозофски факултетsr
dc.rightsopenAccessen
dc.sourceУниверзитет у Београдуsr
dc.subjectuverenja, stereotipi, Razvojni model interkulturne osetljivosti, nastavnici razredne nastave, učenici, romska kulturna grupa, mađarska kulturna grupasr
dc.subjectbeliefs, stereotypes, Developmental model of intercultural sensitivity, teachers, pupils, Roma cultural group, Hungarian cultural groupen
dc.titleInterkulturalna osetljivost i uverenja nastavnika o kulturnim razlikama u školskom kontekstusr
dc.title.alternativeTeachers' intercultural sensitivity and beliefs about cultural differences in the school contexten
dc.typedoctoralThesis
dc.rights.licenseBY-NC
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/bitstream/id/25633/Disertacija.pdf
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/bitstream/id/25634/IzvestajKomisije22421.pdf


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