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Psychological factors of health behavior among youth

dc.contributor.advisorOpačić, Goran
dc.contributor.otherLazarević, Ljiljana
dc.contributor.otherKnežević, Goran
dc.contributor.otherTenjović, Lazar
dc.creatorBogdanović, Slaven
dc.date.accessioned2020-03-13T23:34:20Z
dc.date.available2020-03-13T23:34:20Z
dc.date.available2020-07-03T09:54:18Z
dc.date.issued2019-12-27
dc.identifier.urihttps://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/handle/123456789/12224
dc.identifier.urihttp://eteze.bg.ac.rs/application/showtheses?thesesId=7357
dc.identifier.urihttps://fedorabg.bg.ac.rs/fedora/get/o:21640/bdef:Content/download
dc.identifier.urihttp://vbs.rs/scripts/cobiss?command=DISPLAY&base=70036&RID=531174295
dc.description.abstractIako zdravstvena praksa vekovima unazad prepoznaje značaj psiholoških faktora za održavanje zdravlja, kao i za prevenciju i tretman bolesti, tek sedamdesetih godina prošlog veka je formirana zdravstvena psihologija kao zasebna naučna oblast (APA, 1976). Kao relativno mlada naučna disciplina zdravstvena psihologija se suočava sa brojnim problemima. U ovom trenutku postoji veliki broj teorija zdravstvenog ponašanja, ali konstrukti na koje se te teorije oslanjaju nisu dovoljno dobro definisani (Conner & Norman, 2005). Osim toga, metod samoizveštavanja koji se često koristi u psihologiji, u slučaju zdravstvenog ponašanja pokazuje izvesne manjkavosti, prvenstveno zbog postojanja sistematskih pristrasnosti (Hatziandreu et al., 1989). Zbog toga, stiče se utisak da zdravstvena psihologija još čeka na svoju punu afirmaciju među zdravstvenim naučnim disciplinama. U prilog takvom zaključku govori i činjenica da velika nacionalna istraživanja zdravlja uglavnom ne uključuju psihološke činioce. Pojedini savremeni metodološki pristupi ipak nude obećavajuća rešenja. Jedno od takvih je i metod uzorkovanja iskustava (Hektner, Csikszentmihalyi, & Schmidt, 2007). Osnovna ideja metoda je da se više puta dnevno, u nasumično odabranim trenucima, od ispitanika traži da odgovore na pitanja o iskustvima koja su upravo doživeli. Ovakav pristup omogućuje statističko zaključivanje o svakodnevnom životu ispitanika, a pri tome se oslanja na podatke koji su prikupljeni neposredno nakon iskustva koje je od interesa za istraživanje. Osnovni cilj ovog istraživanja je bio da se metodom uzorkovanja iskustava ispita priroda afekta koji se javlja povodom određenih oblika zdravstvenog ponašanja, te da se ustanovi da li je na osnovu tog afekta moguće predvideti buduće zdravstveno ponašanje. Uzorak ispitanika činilo je 98 mladih osoba, regrutovanih iz populacije studenata. Oni su tokom sedam dana, tri puta dnevno u nasumično odabranim trenucima, preko svojih mobilnih telefona dobijali poruku sa molbom da popune upitnik. Upitnik se odnosio na dvosatni vremenski period koji je prethodio stizanju poruke. Od ispitanika se tražilo da izveste o svom zdravstvenom ponašanju. Praćena su zdravstveno unapređujuća (fizičko vežbanje, konzumacija vode, voća, povrća i dodataka ishrani) i zdravstveno ugrožavajuća ponašanja (konzumacija cigareta, alkohola, slatkiša, brze hrane i napitaka sa kofeinom). Za svako od tih ponašanja je pitano da li je izvedeno tokom prethodnih dva sata. Ako jeste, tražena je procena intenziteta izvođenja. Ako ponašanje nije bilo izvedeno, ispitano je postojanje iskušenja (u slučaju ugrožavajućeg), i procena toga da li je ponašanje trebalo da bude izvedeno (u slučaju unapređujućeg). Nakon toga, ispitan je stepen prijatnosti afekta u vezi sa svakim od ovih pojedinačnih ishoda. Na kraju je procenjen stepen odmornosti, i prijatnosti dešavanja tokom referentnog vremenskog perioda. Osim toga, ispitano je kako na prirodu odnosa između afekta i zdravstvenog ponašanja utiču relativno trajne odlike osobe i karakteristike situacije. Za merenje bazičnih crta ličnosti korišćen je HEXACO inventar (Ashton & Lee, 2007), za opšte samopoimanje SDQ (Marsh & O’Neill, 1984), za sklonost ka preventivnom ili ka promotivnom regulatornom ponašanju upotrebljen je GRFM (Lockwood, Jordan, & Kunda, 2002), dok je za uobičajeno zdravstveno ponašanje upotrebljen upitnik sastavljen za potrebe ovog istraživanja. Jedna od ključnih hipoteza ovog istraživanja je bila da će prijatnost afekta povodom aktuelnog izvođenja zdravstveno unapređujućeg ponašanja biti prediktor intenziteta narednog unapređujućeg ponašanja. Dobijeni rezultati nisu u skladu sa ovom hipotezom. Osim toga, dobijeno je da ni afekat povodom aktuelnog izbegavanja zdravstveno ugrožavajućeg ponašanja ne predviđa više unapređujućeg ponašanja. Sa druge strane, dobijeno je da stepen prijatnosti u situacijama propuštanja da se izvede zdravstveno unapeđujuće ponašanje i situacijama izvođenja ugrožavajućeg ponašanja jeste statistički značajan prediktor unapređujućeg ponašanja. Ključni rezultat ovog istraživanja sugeriše postojanje kvalitativnih razlika između afekta povodom pozitivnog (izvođenje unapređujućeg i izbegavanje ugrožavajućeg) i povodom negativnog (izvođenje ugrožavajućeg i propuštanje unapređujućeg) ponašanja u pogledu mogućnosti predviđanja zdravstveno unapređujućeg ponašanja. Prijatnost afekta povodom zdravstveno unapređujućeg ponašanja interpretirana je kao ponos, a postojanost pozitivnog afekta, uprkos izvođenju negativnog ponašanja, kao rezilijentnost. Rezilijentnost, kao predispozicija za buduće unapređujuće ponašanje, posebno dolazi do izražaja u okolnostima koje se procenjuju kao negativne, kao i kod osoba sa lošijom slikom o svom fizičkom izgledu. Rezultati studije koja je sprovedena nisu potvrdili očekivanje da će prijatan afekat povodom izvođenja zdravstveno unapređujućeg ponašanja biti prediktor daljeg unapređujućeg ponašanja. Međutim, pokazalo se da izostanak neprijatnog afekta povodom negativnog ponašanja (krivice), bolje predviđa unapređujuće ponašanje u narednoj situaciji. Rezilijentnost afekta povodom negativnog zdravstvenog ponašanja (izvođenje ugrožavajućeg i propuštanje unapređujućeg) dovodi do toga da se ponašanje u narednoj situaciji promeni i bude pozitivnije (izbegavanje ugrožavajućeg i izvođenje unapređujućeg). Do sličnih rezultata dolaze i pojedina istraživanja izvedena u domenu zdravstvene psihologije i psihologije potrošača. Neka od njih uključuju i različite neurološke i psihofiziološke mere, što upućuje na zaključak da se kompleksnim problemom zdravstvenog ponašanja nije moguće na adekvatan način baviti unutar okvira jedne naučne discipline. Unapređivanje znanja u ovoj važnoj oblasti zahteva interdisciplinarni pristup i otvorenu saradnju naučnika iz različitih oblasti.sr
dc.description.abstractDespite the fact that the importance of psychological factors for health maintenance, and treatment and prevention of illnesses has been known for centuries, health psychology was established as a separate scientific discipline only in the 1970s (APA, 1976). As a relatively young scientific discipline, health psychology faces numerous problems. At the moment, there is a large number of theories of health behavior, but the constructs they rely on are not well-defined (Conner & Norman, 2005). Besides, the method of self-reporting, often used in psychology, shows certain weaknesses in the case of health behavior, primarily due to the existence of systemic bias (Hatziandreu et al., 1989). All of this leads to the impression that health psychology is still waiting for its full affirmation as a health-science discipline. This impression is further strengthened by the fact that large national studies usually do not include psychological factors. Some modern methodological approaches offer promising solutions. One of them is the experience sampling method (Hektner, Csikszentmihalyi, & Schmidt, 2007). The basis of the method is asking respondents to answer questions about their immediate experiences several times a day, at randomly chosen times. This approach allows for statistical inference about the everyday life of the respondents, relying on data collected immediately after the experience of interest for the study. The main goal of this study was to explore the nature of affect elicited by certain forms of health behaviors, as well as the possibility to predict future health behavior based on it. The sample consisted of 98 young people recruited from the student population. During a 7-day period, they received notifications on their mobile phones 3 times a day at randomly chosen times, asking them to complete a survey. The survey was concerning the two-hour period preceding the notification. Respondents were asked to report about their health behavior. We tracked health-promoting (physical exercise, consumption of water, fruits, vegetables, and dietary supplements) and health-threatening behaviors (consumption of cigarettes, alcohol, sweets, fast food, and caffeinated beverages). For each of these behaviors, we asked whether it was performed during the previous two hours. If yes, we asked for an assessment of its intensity. If the behavior was not performed, we examined whether temptation was present (for health-threatening behaviors), or asked for the respondent’s opinion about whether they should have performed it (for health-promoting behaviors). After that, we asked how pleasant the affect related to each of these outcomes was. Finally, respondents assessed how well-rested they felt, and how pleasant the events occurring during the said time period had been. Apart from that, we wanted to examine the influence of relatively permanent personal characteristics, as well as characteristics of the situation, on the relationship between affect and health behavior. For the assessment of basic personality traits, we used HEXACO personality inventory (Ashton & Lee, 2007), for general self-concept we used SDQ (Marsh & O’Neill, 1984), for the predisposition towards preventive and promotional regulatory behavior we used GRFM (Lockwood, Jordan, & Kunda, 2002), while usual health behavior was assessed using a questionnaire developed for this study. One of the key hypotheses of the study was that the degree of the pleasantness of the affect related to health-promoting behavior will be a predictor of higher intensity of subsequent health-promoting behavior. This hypothesis was not confirmed. Moreover, we see that the affect related to avoidance of health-threatening behavior does not predict more health-promoting behavior, either. On the other hand, we show that the degree of the pleasantness of the affect in situations where a health-promoting behavior is missed, or a health-threating behavior is performed, is a statistically significant predictor of health-promoting behavior. The key finding of this study suggests a qualitative difference between the affect related to positive (performing health-promoting and avoiding health-threatening) and that related to negative (performing health-threatening and missing health-promoting) behavior when it comes to predicting health-promoting behavior. We interpreted the pleasantness of the affect related to health-promoting behavior as pride, and the endurance of positive affect despite performing negative behavior as resilience. Resilience, as a predisposition for future health-promoting behavior, becomes especially important when the circumstances are assessed as negative, as well as when the person has a poorer self-image related to physical appearance. The study did not confirm the expectation that the pleasant affect elicited by performing a health-promoting behavior will be a predictor of subsequent health-promoting behavior. However, it seems that the absence of negative affect related to negative behavior (guilt) can predict more health-promoting behavior in the next situation. The resilience of affect related to negative health behavior (performing health-threatening and missing health-promoting behavior) leads to more positive behavior (avoiding health-threatening and performing health-promoting behavior) in the next situation. Similar findings were obtained by some studies in the areas of health psychology and consumer psychology. Some of them employ various neurological and psychophysical measures, which points to the conclusion that the complex problem of health behavior cannot be adequately addressed within the framework of a single scientific discipline. Advancement of knowledge in this important area requires an interdisciplinary approach and open collaboration among scientists from various fields.en
dc.formatapplication/pdf
dc.languagesr
dc.publisherУниверзитет у Београду, Филозофски факултетsr
dc.rightsopenAccessen
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.sourceУниверзитет у Београдуsr
dc.subjectzdravstveno ponašanjesr
dc.subjecthealth behavioren
dc.subjectmetod uzorkovanja iskustavasr
dc.subjecthijerarhijsko linearno modelovanjesr
dc.subjectbazične crte ličnostisr
dc.subjectsamopoimanjesr
dc.subjectponossr
dc.subjectkrivicasr
dc.subjectexperience sampling methoden
dc.subjecthierarchical linear modelingen
dc.subjectbasic personality traitsen
dc.subjectself-concepten
dc.subjectprideen
dc.subjectguilten
dc.titlePsihološki činioci zdravstvenog ponašanja mladihsr
dc.title.alternativePsychological factors of health behavior among youthen
dc.typedoctoralThesisen
dc.rights.licenseBY-NC-ND
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/bitstream/id/25556/Disertacija.pdf
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/bitstream/id/25557/IzvestajKomisije22420.pdf
dc.identifier.fulltexthttps://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/bitstream/id/25556/Disertacija.pdf
dc.identifier.fulltexthttps://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/bitstream/id/25557/IzvestajKomisije22420.pdf
dc.identifier.rcubhttps://hdl.handle.net/21.15107/rcub_nardus_12224


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