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dc.contributor.advisorDajić-Stevanović, Zora
dc.contributor.otherTopuzović, Marina
dc.creatorVeljković, Bojana
dc.date.accessioned2019-12-30T11:44:36Z
dc.date.available2019-12-30T11:44:36Z
dc.date.available2020-07-03T15:07:39Z
dc.date.issued2019-09-24
dc.identifier.urihttp://eteze.kg.ac.rs/application/showtheses?thesesId=7033
dc.identifier.urihttp://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/handle/123456789/11722
dc.identifier.urihttps://fedorakg.kg.ac.rs/fedora/get/o:1172/bdef:Content/download
dc.description.abstractU cilju uvođenja novih sorti maline, kao vodeće voćne vrste u pogledu izvoza, neophodno je detaljno upoznavanje sa populacijama divlje maline, kako bi se potencijalno iskoristila kao resurs za procese selekcije i oplemenjivanja. Predmet sprovedenih istraživanja jesu devet populacija divlje maline (Rubus idaeus) sa prostora Srbije. Istraživani lokaliteti pripadaju dvema većim prostornim grupama (makrolokalitetima – jugozapadna i jugoistočna Srbija) i dvema visinskim grupama (planinske populacije – lokaliteti ispod 1000 m nadmorske visine i subalpijske populacije – lokaliteti iznad 1000 m nadmorske visine). Sprovedena istraživanja imala su sledeće ciljeve: evidentiranje i očuvanje znanja o tradicionalnoj upotrebi divlje maline; evidentiranje i analiza staništa divlje maline, ispitivanje varijabilnosti unutar i između istraživanih populacija vrste poređenjem morfoloških i anatomskih osobina; analiza fitohemijskih podataka na nivou glavnih primarnih i sekundarnih metabolita u ekstraktima lista i ploda; ispitivanje biološke aktivnosti (antimikrobna i antikancerogena) ekstrakata lista i ploda; utvrđivanje stepena genetičke varijabilnosti upotrebom ALFP markera; utvrđivanje varijabilnosti između populacija u zavisnosti od geografskog položaja i nadmorske visine sa etnobotaničkog, morfoanatomskog, fitohemijskog i genetičkog aspekta. Divlja malina je rasprostraljena širom Srbije, uglavnom u brdskim i planinskim predelima, gde se sreće u raazličitim biljnim zajednicama. Najmanje je zastupljena u zeljastim zajednicama (ima je u 5 livadskih zajednica), dok je najprisutnija u bukovim zajednicama (u preko 150). Veoma je česta na staništima četinara (u stotinak zajednica), i to u zajednicama u kojima su edifikatori jela, smrča, borovi i kleka. Etnobotaničko istraživanje je podrazumevalo prikupljanje podataka od lokalnog stanovništva putem upitnika o upotrebi divlje maline. Ukupno je intervjuisano 93 ispitanika. Dobijeni rezultati su pokazali da se malina koristi širom Srbije kao lekovita biljka i u ishrani. Zabeleženi su novi podaci o upotrebi listova maline u medicinske svrhe, pre svega za lečenje ginekoloških oboljenja, zatim upale prostate kao i upale oka. Plodovi maline se koriste u ishrani, kao i za pripremu različitih tradicionalnih proizvoda (sok, slatko, liker, za pripremu poslastica). Jasna razlika u upotrebi listova i plodova je uočena uzavisnosti od makrolokaliteta. Morfološka istraživanja su delom sprovedena na terenu (visina i obim žbunova), a delom na herbarskom materijalu (dužina i širina listova). Anatomska istraživanja lista su vršena na trajnim mikroskopskim preparatima. Rezultati su pokazali da postoji značajna razlika između istraživanih populacija u morfologiji i anatomiji, da nadmorska visina više utiče na anatomske razlike nego geografski položaj, kao i da ispoljene morfološke i anatomske razlike u velikoj meri zavise od klimatskih faktora. Ispitivanjem fitohemijskog sastava se pokazalo da su ekstrakti listova i plodova divlje maline bogat izvor sekundarnih metabolita, pa samim tim imaju i relativno visoku antioksidativnu aktivnost. Viši sadržaj ukupnih fenolnih jedinjenja, flavonoida, tanina i antocijanina se nalazi u ekstraktima. Nadmorska visina se pokazala kao faktor koji značajno utiče na sadržaj sekundarnih metabolita. Rezultat ispitivanja biološke aktivnosti je da su ekstrakti listova najdelotvorniji protiv bakterije Escherichia coli. Ekstrakti listova divlje maline sa Studene planine su ispoljili blagu antikancerogenu aktivnost prema kanceru debelog creva. Za razliku od listova, plodovi nisu pokazali antikancerogenu aktivnost. Ispitivanje kvaliteta plodova i tradicionalnih proizvoda je vršeno kroz nekoliko parametara (sadržaj vitamina C, sadržaj ukupnih šećera i organskih kiselina). Plodovi divlje maline sa prostora Srbije su izrazito bogati vitaminom C. Relativno visoka količina vitamina C ostaje i u proizvodima, s obzirom na tehnologiju pripreme i termolabilnost askorbinske kiseline. Ispitivanjem genetičke varijabilnosti upotrebom ALFP markera došlo se do podataka da je populacija divlje maline sa Ozrena najstarija i najduže izolovana. Najveći molekularni diverzitet se nalazi unutar divljih populacija, što ukazuje na stabilnost uslova životne sredine u kojima se razvijaju. Uključivanjem gajenih sorti u ALFP analizu, došlo je do njihovog jasnog razdvajanja od divljih populacija usled smanjenja genetičke varijabilnosti i homozigotizacije gena kod sorti. I kod ovih analiza, nadmorska visina se pokazala kao faktor koji značajno utiče na razdvajanje populacija (34,7% genetičkog diverziteta se može pripisati razlikama u nadmorskoj visini). Na osnovu svih dobijenih rezultata proizilazi da divlja malina predstavlja veoma važan resurs (sa nutritivnog, i fitofarmakološkog stanovišta, ali i kao divlji srodnik gajene maline) i vrsta koju je potrebno zaštiti i korisiti u procesima selekcije i oplemenjivanja u stvaranju novih sorti sa unapređenim osobinama.sr
dc.description.abstractIn order to create new varieties it is necessary to have a detailed introduction to wild raspberry populations in order to potentially be used as a resource for selection and breeding processes. The subject of the conducted research are nine populations of wild raspberry (Rubus idaeus) from the territory of Serbia. The research sites belong to two larger spatial groups (macrolocalities – southwestern and southeastern Serbia) and two altitude groups (mountain populations – sites below 1000 meters above sea level and subalpine populations - localities above 1000 meters above sea level). The research carried out had the following aims: recording and preservation of knowledge about the traditional use of wild raspberry; recording and analysis of wild raspberry habitats, testing of variability within and among investigated populations of species by comparing morphological and anatomical traits; analysis of phytohemistry data at the level of main primary and secondary metabolites in leaf and fetal extracts; testing of biological activity (antimicrobial and anticancerogenic) extracts of leaves and fruits; determining the degree of genetic variability using ALFP markers; determining the variability among the populations depending on the geographical position and altitude from the ethnobotanic, morphoatomic, phytochemical and genetic aspects. Wild raspberries are distributed throughout Serbia, mainly in the mountainous and mountainous regions, where they present in diverse plant communities. The least is represented in herbaceous (there are in 5 meadow communities), while the most present is in beech communities (in over 150). It is very common in the habitat of conifers (in a hundred communities), in communities where fir, spruces, pines and juniper are edifiers. Ethnobotanical research involved the collection of data from the local population through a questionnaire on the use of wild raspberry. A total of 93 people were interviewed. The obtained results showed that raspberries are used throughout Serbia as a medicinal plant and in nutrition. New data on the use of raspberry leaves for medical purposes were recorded, primarily for the treatment of gynecological diseases, then inflammation of the prostate and inflammation of the eye. Raspberry fruits are used in eating, as well as for preparing various traditional products (juice, sweet, liqueur, for the preparation of sweets). A clear difference in the use of leaves and fruits was observed depending on the macrolocation. Morphological investigations were partly carried out on the outfield (height and extent of the bushes), and partly on the herbaric material (length and width of the leaves). Anatomical leaf research was performed on permanent microscopicpreparations, light microscopy. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the investigated populations in the morphological and anatomical sense, that the altitude affects the anatomical differences more than the geographical position, and that the morphological and anatomical differences are highly dependent on climatic factors. The study of the phytochemical composition showed that the extracts of leaves and fruits of wild raspberry are a rich source of secondary metabolites (total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and anthocyanins), and therefore have relatively high antioxidant activity. The higher content of total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and anthocyanins is found in leaf extracts than fruits. Altitude proved to be a factor that significantly influences the content of secondary metabolites. The result of the biological activity test is that leaf extracts are the most effective against Escherichia coli. The extracts of wild raspberry leaves from Studena Mountain showed mild anticancer activity to the colon cancer. Unlike leaves, the fruits did not show anticancer activity. The testing of the quality of fruits and traditional products was done through several parameters (content of vitamin C, content of total sugars and organic acids). Fruits of wild raspberry from the territory of Serbia are rich in vitamin C. The relatively high concentration of vitamin C remains in products, given the preparation technology and the thermolability of ascorbic acid. By investigating genetic variability using ALFP markers, it has been found that the population of wild raspberry from Ozren is the oldest and longest isolated. The greatest molecular diversity lies within the wild populations, which indicates the stability of the environment in which they are developing. Incorporating cultivated varieties into ALFP analysis, there has been a clear separation of them from wild populations due to exhaustion of genetic variability and homozygosity of genes in varieties. Even with these analyzes, the altitude has proven to be a factor that significantly affects the separation of populations (34,7% of genetic diversity can be attributed to differences in altitude). Based on all the results obtained, wild raspberries represent a very important resource (from a nutritive, and a phytopharmacological point of view, but also as a wild relative of raspberries) and a species that needs to be protected and used in the selection and breeding processes in the creation of new varieties with improved properties.en
dc.formatapplication/pdf
dc.languagesr
dc.publisherУниверзитет у Крагујевцу, Природно-математички факултетsr
dc.rightsopenAccessen
dc.sourceУниверзитет у Крагујевцуsr
dc.titleEtnobotanička, morfoanatomska, fitohemijska i genetička studija populacija divlje maline (Rubus idaeus L.) na području Srbijesr
dc.typedoctoralThesis
dc.rights.licenseBY-NC-ND
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/bitstream/id/47274/Disertacija.pdf
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/bitstream/id/47275/Izvestaj_Bojana_veljkovic_PMF.pdf


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