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Economic and Energetic Effects of Geothermal Energy Usage in the Agribusiness Sector of the Vojvodina Region

dc.contributor.advisorProdanović, Radivoj
dc.contributor.otherCarić, Marko
dc.contributor.otherSoleša, Dragan
dc.contributor.otherProdanović, Radivoj
dc.creatorJanković, Zoran
dc.date.accessioned2019-12-23T16:12:02Z
dc.date.available2019-12-23T16:12:02Z
dc.date.available2020-07-03T18:20:06Z
dc.date.issued2019-12-13
dc.identifier.urihttp://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/handle/123456789/11562
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dc.description.abstractGeotermalna energija predstavlja jedan od najvažnijih, ali istovremeno i slabo iskorišćenih resursa. Postoji potencijal i mogućnost za eksploataciju geotermalne vode na skoro celoj teritoriji AP Vojvodine. Geotermalna energija se veoma malo koristi i pored toga što po raspoloživim potencijalima spadamo u područja sa bogatijim izvorima. Geotermalna energija može da se koristi u agrobiznisu za zagrevanje zaštićenog prostora, stajskih objekata, domaćinstava, ribnjaka, objekata za proizvodnju, preradu, sušenje, dehidraciju, obradu i čuvanje voća, povrća, cveća, gljiva, za navodnjavanje, balneološke svrhe, sportsko-rekrativne 4 namene i u agroekoturizmu. Primena geotermalne energije za grejanje u poljoprivredi može da dovede do povećanja prinosa, kao i do smanjenja operativnih troškova, posebno u hladnijim predelima. Primena geotermalne energije ima izuzetan značaj u organskoj poljoprivrednoj proizvodnji, s obzirom da je jedan od principa korišćenje obnovljivih izvora energije. Zagrevanje putem geotermalne energije dovešće do redukcije potrošnje fosilnih goriva i pada cene ostalih energenata. Geotermalna energija se u prehrambenoj industriji koristi za sušenje, isparavanje, pranje i održavanje higijene, pasterizaciju mleka, preradu mesa i ribe, sterilizaciju opreme. Sušenje voća, povrća i ribe predstavlja jednu od najšire korišćenih oblasti primene geotermalne energije u prehrambenoj industriji. Koristi se za rasvetu, hlađenje i napajanje pumpi, kompresora, transportera, ventilatora, mašina za sečenje mesa, za obradu, pakovanje i preradu vode. Predmet istraživanja je zastupljenost geotermalne energije i ocena njene energetske i ekonomske efikasnosti u agrobiznisu AP Vojvodine. Cilj istraživanja je da se utvrdi energetski potencijal, odnosno nivo i mogućnost korišćenja geotermalne energije u agrobiznisu Vojvodine, kao i da se predstave ekonomski i ekološki efekti. U istraživanju se primenjuje kombinacija kvantitativno-kvalitativnih metoda, indukcija i dedukcija, analiza i sinteza, apstrakcija i generalizacija, metod deskripcije, statistički metod, komparativna analiza i dr. Primeniće se metod posmatranja sa učestvovanjem. Koristiće se i metod studije slučaja i desk-research metod. Rezultati istraživanja pokazuju da Republika Srbija ima veliki potencijal geotermalnih izvora (preko 100 MW/m2), iako je on mnogo veći, ako se posmatra proizvodnja hrane, električne energije i dr. Republika Srbija raspolaže s 360 izvorišta termalnih i termomineralnih voda, od kojih je samo 10 % iskorišćeno. Na teritoriji Republike Srbije postoje važna izvorišta geotermalnih voda (više od 80 geotermalnih izvora i bušotina ukupne toplotne snage oko 120 MW). Ukupne rezerve kojima Republika Srbija raspolaže jesu značajne, ali rezerve geotermalne energije nisu iskorišćene u dovoljnoj meri. One iznose oko 220 MW toplotne snage, a instalirana snaga svih kapaciteta, koji eksploatišu geotermalnu energiju iznosi oko 90 MW i koriste se u najvećoj meri za balneološko-rekreativne potrebe. 5 AP Vojvodina obiluje velikim bogatstvom geotermalnih izvora. U periodu 1969-1996. godine u AP Vojvodini načinjene su 72 bušotine, a u periodu od 1997. do 2008. godine izbušeno je još 6 bušotina. Ukupna toplotna snaga hidrotermalnih bušotina iznosi prema podacima "NIS Naftagas" iz 2005. godine za 54 hidrotermalne bušotine - 72,579 kW. Uzroci minimalnog korišćenja nisu u tehničkim rešenjima i tehnologiji korišćenja, već u nedostatku finansijskih sredstava, znanja i projekata. Nedovoljna integrisanost naučnih i proizvodnih organizacija, nedostatak toplotnih pumpi, relativno veća početna ulaganja, izostanak stimulativnih mera finansijske podrške i poreske politike negativno utiče na korišćenje geotermalne energije. Stavljanje u funkciju postojećih bušotina zahteva da se uradi konkretan tehno-ekonomski program svih instalacija, rekonstrukcije i popravke, razgovor sa ugovornim korisnicima i iznalaženje novih korisnika i investitora. Korišćenje geotermalne vode u proizvodnji Tilapije i Afričkog soma eksperimentalno je potvrdilo da je moguće uspešno gajiti ove vrste riba u našim uslovima. Dosadašnji rezultati pokazuju da direktno grejanje vode u ribnjacima, korišćenjem različitih energenata, zbog visokih cena nije ekonomski održivo, pa se korišćenje geotermalne energije nameće kao ekonomično rešenje. Geotermalna energija može biti veoma korisna u organskoj poljoprivredi, s obzirom da je jedan od principa korišćenje obnovljivih izvora energije. U agrobiznisu na području AP Vojvodine, korišćenje geotermalne energije skoro da i nije zastupljeno. Potencijal geotermalnih izvora nije u celini iskorišćen, ni sa aspekta turističke tražnje. Raspoložive termomineralne vode u AP Vojvodini pružaju više mogućnosti za razvoj postojećih banja i izgradnju novih banja. Geotermalna energija je veliki potencijal za dugoročni, sigurni razvoj održive poljoprivredne proizvodnje i prehrambene industrije, kao i drugih delatnosti. Takođe, geotermalna energija je svojevrstan odgovor na klimatske promene, nestabilne i rastuće cene konvencionalnih goriva, koja poskupljuju proces poslovanja. Cena korišćenja geotermalnih postrojenja je značajno niža od cene sistema za korišćenje konvencionalnih 6 energenata. Ekonomska analiza, koja uvažava najnovije smernice ekoloških zahteva, neophodnosti bušenja i opremanja bušotine, pokazuje da su bušotine iznad 40 oC i jakog izliva oko 60 m3/h rentabilne, pod uslovom da je potrošač sposoban koristiti ceo potencijal bušotine preko 6000 ha/god. Cene geotermalne energije su niže od mnogih drugih energenata. Visoki početni troškovi, rizik od istražnog bušenja, neujednačena politika subvencija i tražnja govore da je geotermalna energija procenjena, kao najjeftiniji izvor energije 2019. godine. Studije o uporednim troškovima različitih izvora energije pokazuju da je geotermalna energija pristupačan izvor energije i da je cena povoljnija u odnosu na druge tehnologije (osim energije iz malih hidroelektrana), koje su trenutno dostupne. Na području naselja Kupinovo od 1982-1985. godine izvršena su opsežna istraživanja, radi sagledavanja opravdanosti ulaganja u eksploataciju geotermalnih izvora u agrobiznisu, balneologiji i u sportsko-rekrativne namene. Najperspektivniji prostor za dobijanje termalne vode prema proceni, predstavlja potez istočno od Kupinova, u pravcu sela Progara, duž leve obale Save. Na području Kupinova napravljene su dve hidrotermalne bušotine, Kup-1/H i Kup-2/H. Finansiranje realizacije bušenja i istraživanja projekata izvršio je NIS-Naftagas iz Novog Sada. Bušotine su pokazale izvanredne rezultate. Predstavnici sela predložili su da se geotermalna enerija iskoristi za potrebe postojećeg toplog kupatila. Nedostatak finansijskih sredstava uticao je da se realizacija projekta odloži. Bušotina je konzervisana, ali se može brzo dekonzervirati i privesti nameri eksploatacije u agrobiznisu. Imajući u vidu da su pomenute bušotine konzervirane, one bi se uz mala ulaganja mogle osposobiti za eksploataciju i zagrevanje staklenika, koji bi se podigli u neposrednoj blizini. To je najekonomičnije rešenje, pod uslovm da je udaljenost plastenika do 2 km. Povoljna lokacija za iskorišćavanje geotermalne vode nalazi se severno od Starog Bečeja (Medenjača i Veliki Rit) i severozapadno od Novog Bečeja (Ljutovo - Veliki Rit). To bi bile optimalne lokacije za bušenje novih bušotina, imajući u vidu zahteve za efikasnom i ekonomičnom stakleničkom proizvodnjom. Geotermalna voda u Kupinovu se u skladu sa svojim karakteristikama 7 može koristiti i kao pijaća, dok je sa vodom u Bečeju drugačiji slučaj. Ova voda ima povećane količine rastvorenih mineralnih materija (4 g/l), rastvorene i slobodne gasove (uglavnom metan) i srednje je agresivna prema metalima. Ima veće zahteve u tehnološkom procesu i deponovanju posle iskorišćenja, a njeno korišćenje bi moglo biti u energetske svrhe. Ukoliko se pri oceni mogućnosti geotermalnog ležišta u Bečeju krene od parametara dobijenih na bušotini Bč-2/H, mogli bismo zaključiti da se sa jednom takvom bušotinom može zagrevati 2-4 ha pod staklenikom. Izvršena je kompleksna analiza termomineralne vode bušotine u Inđiji - Inđ-3/H. U skladu sa mišljenjem Medicinskog fakulteta, voda sadrži više parametara u nedozvoljenim količinama, pa se ne može koristiti kao pijaća voda. Po fizičko-hemijskim karakteristikama termomineralna voda se može koristiti kao aditivno sredstvo lečenja u oblasti medicinske rehabilitacije, isključivo kupanjem. Geotermalni potencijal u AP Vojvodini nedovoljno je iskorišćen, pa je vlada Vojvodine odlučila da pruži podršku geotermalnim projektima. S obzirom da raspolažemo sa značajnim izvorištima geotermalne energije, imamo potencijal da njenim većim korišćenjem unapredimo poljoprivredu, akvakulturu, životnu sredinu, prehrambenu industriju, agroekoturizam, balneologiju i druge proizvodne i uslužne delatnosti. Stimulisaće se posebno staklenička i plastenička proizvodnja. Nedovoljna je iskorišćenost raspoložive geotermalne energije u agrobiznisu AP Vojvodine, iako je dokazano da je geotermalna energija ekonomičnija u odnosu na druge izvore energije. Potrebno je da država podstiče naučno-istraživački rad u oblasti proizvodnje termalnih pumpi, da daje veće subvencije za korišćenje obnovljivih izvora energije, da podstiče korišćenje već postojećih bušotina, koje su zapostavljene, kao i bušenje novih. Republika Srbija je zavisna od uvoza energenata, pa se nameće kao nužno hitno pristupiti izradi strategije, koja će pridavati značaj većem korišćenju geotermalne i ostalih izvora energije.sr
dc.description.abstractGeothermal energy is one of the most important, but at the same time, low-utilized resources. There is a potential and possibility for the exploitation of geothermal water on almost the whole territory of AP Vojvodina. Geothermal energy is very little used despite the fact that, according to available potentials, we are in areas with richer sources. Geothermal energy can be used in agribusiness for heating protected areas, farm buildings, households, ponds, facilities for production, processing, drying, dehydration, processing and storage of fruits, vegetables, flowers, mushrooms, irrigation, balneological purposes, sports and recreational purposes in agroecotourism. The application of 10 geothermal energy for heating in agriculture can lead to an increase in yields, as well as to a reduction in operating costs, especially in colder areas. The application of geothermal energy is of great importance in organic agricultural production, since one of the principles is the use of renewable energy sources. Heating through geothermal energy will lead to a reduction in fossil fuel consumption and a fall in the price of other fuels. Geothermal energy is used in the food industry for drying, evaporating, washing and maintaining hygiene, pasteurization of milk, processing of meat and fish, sterilization of equipment. Drying of fruits, vegetables and fish is one of the most widely used areas of application of geothermal energy in the food industry. It is used for lighting, cooling and powering pumps, compressors, conveyors, fans, machine for cutting meat, for processing, packaging and processing of water. The subject of the research is the representation of geothermal energy and the assessment of its energy and economic efficiency in the agribusiness of AP Vojvodina. The aim of the research is to determine the energy potential, ie the level and the possibility of using geothermal energy in Vojvodina agribusiness, as well as to present economic and environmental effects. The research uses a combination of quantitative-qualitative methods, induction and deduction, analysis and synthesis, abstraction and generalization, descriptor method, statistical method, comparative analysis, and others. The method of observation with participation will be applied. The case study method and the desk-research method will also be used. The results of the survey show that the Republic of Serbia has a high potential of geothermal resources (over 100 MW/m2), although it is much higher if the production of food, electricity, etc. is observed. The Republic of Serbia has 360 springs of thermal and thermal mineral waters, of which only 10% is used. In the territory of the Republic of Serbia there are important sources of geothermal water (more than 80 geothermal sources and wells with total thermal power of about 120 MW). The total reserves that the Republic of Serbia has at their disposal are significant, but geothermal energy reserves have not been sufficiently utilized. They amount to about 220 MW of thermal power, and the installed capacity of all capacities, which exploit 11 geothermal energy, is about 90 MW and are used to the greatest extent for balneological and recreational needs. AP Vojvodina is abundant with great wealth of geothermal resources. In the period 1969-1996. 72 wells were made in the AP Vojvodina, and in the period from 1997 to 2008, 6 drilled boreholes were drilled. The total heat output of hydrothermal wells is according to the data of "NIS Naftagas" from 2005 for 54 hydrothermal wells - 72,579 kW. The causes of minimal use are not in the technical solutions and technology of use, but in the lack of financial resources, knowledge and projects. Insufficient integration of scientific and production organizations, lack of heat pumps, relatively higher initial investments, lack of stimulative measures of financial support and tax policy negatively affects the use of geothermal energy. Putting into operation of existing wells requires a concrete techno-economic program of all installations, reconstructions and repairs, conversation with contractual users and finding new users and investors. The use of geothermal water in the production of Tilapia and African Soma has experimentally confirmed that it is possible to successfully cultivate these fish species in our conditions. The results so far show that direct water heating in ponds, using different energy sources, due to high prices is not economically viable, and the use of geothermal energy is imposed as an economical solution. Geothermal energy can be very useful in organic agriculture, since one of the principles is the use of renewable energy sources. In agribusiness in the area of AP Vojvodina, the use of geothermal energy is almost not represented. The potential of geothermal sources has not been fully exploited, either from the aspect of tourist demand. The available thermomineral waters in the AP Vojvodina provide more opportunities for the development of existing spas and construction of new spa facilities. Geothermal energy is a great potential for long-term, safe development of sustainable agricultural production and food industry, as well as other activities. Also, geothermal energy is a unique response to climate change, unstable and rising prices for conventional fuels, which increase the process of business. The cost of using geothermal installations is significantly lower 12 than the price of the conventional energy system. Economic analysis, which adheres to the latest guidelines for environmental requirements, the necessity of drilling and equipping the well, shows that wells above 40 oC and a strong spillage of about 60 m3/h are profitable, provided the consumer is able to use the entire potential of the well over 6000 ha/y. Prices of geothermal energy are lower than many other energy sources. High initial costs, exploration drilling risk, uneven subsidy policies, and demand indicate that geothermal energy is estimated as the cheapest source of energy in 2019. Studies on comparative costs of different energy sources show that geothermal energy is an affordable source of energy and that price is more favorable compared to other technologies (other than small hydro power plants) that are currently available. In the area of Kupinovo settlement from 1982-1985. extensive surveys were carried out, in order to examine the justification of investments in the exploitation of geothermal sources in agribusiness, balneology and for sports and recreational purposes. The most perspective area for obtaining thermal water according to the estimate, is a move east of Kupinova, towards the village of Progar, along the left bank of the Sava River. In the Kupinova area two hydrothermal wells, Kup-1/H and Kup-2/H were made. NIS-Naftagas from Novi Sad carried out the financing of drilling and project research. Bores showed excellent results. Village representatives suggested that the geothermal enrichment be used for the needs of an existing warm bathroom. The lack of financial resources has affected the realization of the project. The well is conserved, but can be quickly deconcentrated and the intentions of exploitation in the agribusiness are brought about. Bearing in mind that these drilled wells can be preserved, they could be equipped with small investments for the exploitation and heating of greenhouses, which would be built in close proximity. This is the most economical solution, provided the distance between the greenhouse is up to 2 km. A favorable location for the exploitation of geothermal water is located north of Staro Bečej (Medenjača and Veliki Rit) and northwest of Novi Bečej (Ljutovo - Veliki Rit). These would be optimal locations for drilling new wells, bearing in mind the requirements for efficient and economical greenhouse production. 13 Geothermal water in Kupinov can be used as a drink in accordance with its characteristics, while the water in Becej is a different case. This water has increased amounts of dissolved mineral matter (4 g/l), dissolved and free gases (mainly methane) and is medium aggressive against metals. It has greater demands in the technological process and its disposal after the exploitation, and its use could be for energy purposes. If in the assessment of the possibility of the geothermal deposit in Bečej, it starts with the parameters obtained on the well Bč-2/H, we can conclude that with such a borehole it can be heated 2-4 ha under the greenhouse. A complex analysis of thermomineral water of the well in Inđija - Inđ-3/H was performed. In accordance with the opinion of the Faculty of Medicine, the water contains several parameters in unauthorized quantities, so it can not be used as a drinking water. According to physical and chemical characteristics, thermo-mineral water can be used as an additive treatment in the field of medical rehabilitation, exclusively bathing. Geothermal potential in the AP Vojvodina has been insufficiently used, and the Vojvodina government has decided to support geothermal projects. Since we have significant sources of geothermal energy, we have the potential to improve its agriculture, aquaculture, environment, food industry, agroecotourism, balneology and other production and service activities through its increased use. Especially greenhouse and greenhouse production will be stimulated. The utilization of available geothermal energy in AP Vojvodina agribusiness is insufficient, although it has been proven that geothermal energy is more economical than other sources of energy. It is necessary for the state to stimulate scientific research in the field of thermal pump production, to provide greater subsidies for the use of renewable energy sources, to encourage the use of existing wells, which are neglected, as well as the drilling of new ones. The Republic of Serbia is dependent on energy imports, and urgently urges the development of a strategy, which will emphasize the importance of greater use of geothermal and other energy sourcesen
dc.languagesr (latin script)
dc.publisherУниверзитет Привредна академија у Новом Саду, Факултет за економију и инжењерски менаџментsr
dc.rightsopenAccessen
dc.sourceУниверзитет Привредна академија у Новом Садуsr
dc.subjectEkonomski efektisr
dc.subjectEconomic effectsen
dc.subjectenergetski efektisr
dc.subjectgeotermalna energijasr
dc.subjectagrobiznissr
dc.subjectagroekoturizamsr
dc.subjectbalneologijasr
dc.subjectAP Vojvodina.sr
dc.subjectenergetic effectsen
dc.subjectgeothermal energyen
dc.subjectagribusinessen
dc.subjectagroecotourismen
dc.subjectbalneologyen
dc.subjectAP Vojvodina.en
dc.titleEkonomski i energetski efekti korišćenja geotermalne energije u agrobiznisu Vojvodinesr
dc.title.alternativeEconomic and Energetic Effects of Geothermal Energy Usage in the Agribusiness Sector of the Vojvodina Regionen
dc.typedoctoralThesisen
dc.rights.licenseBY-NC
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/bitstream/id/59329/Disertacija.pdf
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/bitstream/id/59330/IzvestajKomisije.pdf


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