Uticaj Gz+ ubrzanja na organ vida kod pilota ViPVO na humanoj centrifugi
The effect of Gz+ acceleration on the organ of vision in pilots of AF and AFD on a human centrifuge
Committee membersŠarenac-Vulović, Tatjana
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SAŽETAK Uvod: Preko 80% svih informacija tokom letenja kod pilota je vizuelno. U avijaciji su vidne funkcije značajne zbog praćenja signala na instrument tablama kao i znakova okoline. Velike brzine prilikom poletanja, tokom letenja i prilikom sletanja modernih letilica predstavljaju dodatni napor za organ vida. Od samog početka razvoja vazduhoplovstva, funkciji vida se pridaje izuzetan značaj. Zbog velike praktične primene u vazdušnoj borbi, uticaj +Gz ubrzanja na organ vida je veoma važno za istraživanje. Od svih čulnih funkcija kojima čovek raspolaže vid je najvažniji kako u pogledu bezbednosti letenja tako i za kvalitet izvršavanja letačkih zadataka. Kod visokog početnog stepena ubrzanja mogu se javiti značajne promene u vidnim funkcijama. Međutim, važno je održati oštrinu vida usled primene novih funkcionalnih displeja za brzu orijentaciju pilota, vizuelne konfiguracije reljefa terena, prikaza oružanih sistema, protivničkih aviona i dodatno usložnjene orijentacije u p...rostoru. Neophodno je nastaviti ispitivanja koja će obezbediti precizne pokazatelje oštrine vida u stanju realnog +Gz ubrzanja i prostorne dezorijentacije. Cilj: Cilj istraživanja bio je da se utvrdi da li postoj uticaj na organ vida kod pilota borbene avijacije i studenata pilota usled izlaganja +Gz ubrzanju u humanoj centrifugi.
ABSTRACT Introduction: Over 80 % of all information a pilot receives during the flight is visual. In aviation due to the importance of visual stimulus and environment sings. The high speeds achieved during the take-off, flight, and landing of modern aircraft present limitations for the visual system. The importance of maintaining visual function during these intervals has been recognized since the earliest stages of aviation development. Because of the great practical importance of air combat, research on visual stress during flight is of great importance receives much attention. Vision is the most important sensory function in terms of both flight safety and the quality performance of flight duties. At high initial rates of acceleration, significant changes in visual function can occur. However, the importance of maintaining visual acuity is increasing due to the application of novel functional displays for rapid orientation of the pilot in space, the configuration of the a...rea field, aircraft opponents, and weapon systems. Therefore, it is necessary to continue studies that will provide accurate indicators of visual acuity in the context of real Gz acceleration and spatial disorientation. Aim: The aim of this study was to demonstrate impact on the visual acuity on aircraft pilots and pilot students during exposure to +Gz acceleration in human centrifuge. Material and methods: This test was done as a cross section study. The study was conducted on a defined population, 95 examinees aged 21 to 45 years divided into two groups. We examined the prevalence of exposure to positive acceleration, examined the impact of acceleration on the visual functions of these two groups of subjects. The first group were aircraft pilots, which contained 65 pilots and were exposed to acceleration from +5,5Gz to + 7Gz, while other students pilots, where there were 30 students and who were exposed to an acceleration of +5,5Gz. The study was carried out at the Department of Biodynamic of the Aeromedical Institute where human centrifuge was located and was conducted in accordance with the instructions given for each test. We examined the obtained differences in the acuity of vision at a distance and proximity, stereoscopic vision, color vision and pupil diameter on acceleration rate. The hemodynamic parameters of diastolic and systolic pressure and pulse were measured. Aircraft pilots were tested for a period of three consecutive days because they were exposed to different acceleration values, while pilot students were tested in one day due to exposure to lower acceleration values. We also observed differences between these two groups of respondents, which is our important indicator of the status of visible functions at the beginning of a professional career and after many years of flight hours.