Ergonomski programi i njihov uticaj na prevenciju ergonomskog rizika kod dece školskog uzrasta
Perić, Dragan Ž.
Faculty:Универзитет у Нишу, Факултет заштите на раду
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A longitudinal study conducted with the aim to study the effects of certain ergonomic programs on the prevention and reduction of the risks of musculoskeletal disorders in primary-school-age children rests on a sample of 76 examinees, pupils from Niš primary schools, aged 10 (±6 months). The basic sample was divided into three subsamples. The first subsample, EG1, comprising 28 pupils of both genders, represented the first experimental group. The second subsample, EG2, consisting of 22 pupils of both genders, represented the second experimental group, and the third subsample, KG, which consisted of 26 pupils of both genders, represented the control group. Both experimental groups (EG1 and EG2) underwent special four-month programs based on the education of children regarding ergonomic risks and their prevention, while the control group KG, attended only regular physical education classes. In addition, all three groups were subjected to a survey based on the Nordic questionnaire
and body map, in order to determine the level of discomfort and pain when sitting or being in certain positions. Furthermore, all three groups were subjected to anthropometric measurements, and their postural status was established by an ultrasonic device (Spinal mouse). This was followed by taking anthropo-technical measurements of the school chairs and benches from the classrooms in which the pupils resided. Two measurements of the examinees were conducted -one at the beginning and the other at the end of the experimental period. The examinees from the experimental groups EG1 and EG2 underwent a special training program on ergonomic risks after which they were distributed a number of posters, leaflets and pamphlets on proper body posture and proper way of sitting. These groups had a chance to see a special cartoon on ergonomic risks and proper body posture, which was followed by an ergonomic quiz they were asked to do. The difference between the experimental groups EG1 and EG2 was reflected in the way of implementation of the two programs. Among other exercises, the experimental group EG1, had exercises with stability (pilates) balls during their physical education classes, while the experimental group EG2 practiced the program "School on the Move" (during the classes, the children could, when and if they would feel like it, move freely or do stretching or any other exercises). Group EG1 was shown the practical application of the ergonomic backpack which was complemented by weighing the school bags they carry every day. The obtained data were statistically analyzed and presented in several tables. Following the set objectives, tasks and research hypotheses, the conclusions were drawn which indicate the positive effects of the experimental programs and the negative impact of school furniture on the postural status of the examinees. A proposal was made to change the size and shape of school furniture, which should be adjusted to the examinees’ anthropometric measures. According to the obtained results, the experimental group EG1, working with stability balls, had statistically more significant results than the experimental group EG2 and the control group KG. The experimental group EG2, which applied the concept of "School on the move", had statistically more significant results in comparison to the control group KG. As for the children’s postural status, the different programs and approaches applied with experimental groups (EG1 and EG2) and the control group KG point to the fact that there were statistically significant effects with the examinees of the experimental groups in terms of body posture. The Nordic test, used in the final measurement with the experimental group EG1 revealed good statistical significance in reducing discomfort and pain in the neck area, while the experimental group EG2 confirmed statistical significance in reducing pain and discomfort during prolonged sitting. This research has its practical and theoretical value. First of all, there is a great need to pay attention to children in growth, because there is a high risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders in the spine region, as well as of other hypertension diseases, hypokinesia, obesity, cardiac and vascular disorders. This study could serve as a pilot research for a larger and more complex scientific research in the field of prevention of musculoskeletal and other changes.View More
Keywords:ergonomski rizik, mišićno-skeletni poremećaji, „škola u pokretu“, ergonomki kviz, posturalni poremećaji; Еrgonomic risks, musculoskeletal disorders, “school on the move”, ergonomic quiz, postural disorders