Problemski pristup nastavi gramatike u osnovnoj školi
Malićević, Amela F.
Faculty:University of Niš, Teacher Training Faculty, Vranje
Cvetković Teofilović, Irena
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The tendency of modern education and teaching is that students should gain independency as much as possible through the process of acquiring knowledge. Learning is less focused on memorizing facts and data, and more on finding new information and skills that they interpret, judge, critically analyze, and find their practical application. "Improving Serbian language teaching in primary schools means the abandonment of obsolete lecturing and information procedures ,as well as, recognition of forms of learning that stress the uninhibited cognitive activity, independence and creativity of students" (Z. Јоcić, 2010: 247). In addition to what is done, taught or clarified, modern theories of teaching give more importance to how it is done. The main objective of this study was to experimentally establish the effectiveness of learning through problem-solving in Serbian language grammar-teaching. This way of learning is influencing students to creatively and naturally develop their intellectual
abilities and mental strength in the process of learning grammatical phenomena. Theoretical framework was the starting point for defining key theoretical research ideas, and relevant basis for problem-oriented content modeling and problem-based methodical procedures in Serbian language grammar-teaching. It includes theoretical explanations of the concept of problem-oriented learning, theories of learning and teaching, modeling and creative problem solving. The research approach is based on a constructivist educational paradigm, which is based on the view that learning is the activity of an individual, and one of the ways of achieving the research and creative approach in Serbian language grammar class. Based on the theoretical hypothesis, we conceptualized and applied experimental model of problem-oriented learning grammar in third and fourth grade of elementary school. Students of the control group dealt with former, traditional way of learning grammar, and the students of the experimental group were involved in problem-oriented model of learning. The means of gathering data included testing and poll-questioning, as well as organized, planned observing of classes in experimental and control groups with the goal of their analysis. Data was collected with the use of a number of tools: initial test, final test and surveys of students and teachers. The study included 232 students of third and fourth grade who were tested twice – before and after the experimental part of the research. The results showed a positive effect of problem-oriented teaching on the quality of students' knowledge of grammar i.e. on the level of productive and reproductive grammatical knowledge. Besides that, our results showed that better results were obtained by students with higher grades and better overall success. We found that the problem-based grammar teaching can be made more interesting for teachers and students in lower grades of elementary school. Finally, we found that the ability to solve grammatical problems was the same among students of third and fourth grade. When analyzing the answers of students we have found that problem-based model was not too difficult, that classes were interesting, that most of them would like to have such classes more often and that they believe lessons are better adopted using this method than using textbooks or listening to teachers’ lectures. The surveyed teachers are positive on the implementation of problem-based grammar teaching of Serbian language; they understand the importance and advantages of a creative approach to teaching grammar in the early grades. This research showed that problem-based teaching, as a modern educational system and didactic-methodical strategy, allows a new, creative way of access to grammar of Serbian language by putting students in a position of a subject which critically and creatively approaches the presented problems, developing their curiosity and ability to learn through the process.View More
Keywords:problemsko učenje; learning through problem-solving; efikasnost; misaona aktivnost; gramatički fenomeni; kreativnost; efficiency; cognitive activity; grammatical phenomena; creativity