Analiza i načini poboljšanja performansi bežičnih optičkih telekomunikacionih sistema u uslovima atmosferske turbulencije
Petković, Milica I.
Faculty:University of Niš, Faculty of Electronic Engineering
Đorđević, Goran T.
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Since contemporary radio-frequency (RF) communication systems are characterized by overcrowded and licensed spectrum, limited bandwidth and relatively low transmission data rates, the use of these technologies does not provide a series of new demands that future generations of telecommunications systems have to realize. Although optical fiber systems allow more bandwidth and higher transmission rates, they are characterized by complicated and expensive implementation. As one possible solution for the "last mile" problem, Free Space Optics (FSO) technology has gained importance since it provides simultaneously the optical fibre systems data rates and the flexibility of wireless communications. The optical signal at the reception is converted into an electrical one by photodiode after transmission via the atmospheric channel. Commercial FSO systems generally use intensity modulation (IM) with OOK scheme at the transmitting part of the system, while direct detection (DD) is performed at the
reception. The FSO system employing IM/DD with OOK scheme and PIN photodiode at the receiver is analyzed in the thesis. The outage probability and error rate expressions are presented, which are used to examine the effect of atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors. The FSO systems with subcarrier intensity modulation (SIM) employing various modulations in electrical domain (phase shift keying (PSK), differential phase shift keying (DPSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)) are analyzed in the continuation of the thesis. The error rate expressions are derived. The SIM-PSK and SIM- DPSK FSO system analysis is performed considering more general case when the hardware imperfections of the receiver electrical part are taken into account. The ergodic and outage capacity analysis is also presented, taking into consideration the probability of the optical signal blockage due to random obstacles. Based on the derived results, the FSO link optimization is done in order to achieve better system performance. Furthermore, the analysis of FSO systems with avalanche (APD) photodiode at the reception is presented. The bit error rate expressions for the FSO systems employing IM/DD with OOK scheme, SIM-PSK and SIM-BDPSK are derived. Based on the presented results, the APD gain optimization is performed in order to achieve minimal values of the error rate. The use of relaying technology is investigated as a method to improve system performance. The mixed RF/FSO systems with fixed and variable AF (Amplify and Forward) relays are analyzed. Beside the noise-limited scenario, the more general case, when the relay is affected by noise and interference, is also considered. The outage probability and error rate expressions are presented, which are utilized to determine the effects of the RF and FSO link conditions on system performance. The determination of a variable gain is performed based on instantaneous channel state information (CSI), which is happened to be outdated in practical scenario. Therefore, the analytical expressions for the outage probability and error rate are derived, considering the RF/FSO system with variable AF relay based on outdated CSI. Further improvement of the system performance is achieved by using diversity combining techniques in the RF domain by multiple parallel relaying. The analytical expressions for the system performance are derived for the RF/FSO system with partial relay selection based on outdated CSI. The RF/FSO system with fixed AF relays is considered, as well as the RF/FSO system with variable AF relays when the amplification gain is determined by the same outdated CSI used for relay selection. The effect of RF channel state is examined, as well as the influence of atmospheric conditions, pointing errors and FSO aperture design on the system performance. A developed simulation model is utilized to confirm the numerical results obtained by the analytical expressions presented in the dissertation thesis.View More
Keywords:atmosferska turbulencija, verovatnoća prekida, verovatnoća greške, greška pozicioniranja, kapacitet, optičke bežične telekomunikacije, relejna tehnologija; atmospheric turbulence, capacity, error rate, free space optics, optical wireless communications, outage probability, pointing errors, relay technology