Specifičnosti primene marketing koncepta u visokoškolskim ustanovama
Popović, Ana N.
Faculty:University of Niš, Faculty of Economy
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One of the main goals of contemporary higher education institutions refers to achieving and developing sustainable competitive advantage. That fact is among the main causes for affirmation of marketing concept application in higher education sector. Namely, in the higher education market, more and more various institutions are offering their services to the same target group – prospective students. Competition on this market is stronger and more numerous than ever, and that makes more explicit application of marketing – a necessity. In order to survive and develop on the market, higher education institutions have to attract, enrol and retain sufficient number of students. That is possible only if these institutions succeed to establish and continuously enhance their competitive advantage. In profit sector context, marketing concept is used for achieving mentioned aims, as this business orientation has positive influence on organisation’s performances. Marketing concept refers to system
and dissemination of market intelligence, and decision-making based on this information, with final aim – to provide superior value and to cater the needs of clients better than the competition does. Although application of marketing concept in higher education sector has originally faced some objections, numerous researches have proven that not only is it possible in this sector, but marketing activities are commonly used in higher education institutions. On the other hand, studies about marketing concept and its effects are relatively scarce in higher education context. Therefore, the main aim of the research presented in this Doctoral Dissertation is to determine whether marketing concept application contributes to success of higher education institutions (HEIs). In that respect, the main scientific contribution of this dissertation refers to filling in the identified gaps in theoretical and empirical researches realized so far. This aim is especially reflected in the specific context of the realized research. Namely, most of the previous studies pertain to unique language or geographical area and context of developed countries. This research includes the context of developing country (Serbia), but also comparative analysis with developed country (Finland) – developed not only in terms of economy, but also in terms of outstanding educational sector performances. Research on interrelation of marketing concept application and performances of HEIs was realized in the following manner. Application of marketing concept (market orientation) was analysed as one option of business orientations, alongside production and sales concept. HEIs were classified into three groups based on implemented business orientation, and then their performances were compared in order to test whether market oriented HEIs had better performances when compared to the rest of the sample. Several criteria were used for classification of HEIS into groups that relate to implemented business orientation. The main criterion refers to decision making in the institution. It is considered that market oriented HEIs base their decisions on systematically gathered and disseminated market intelligence. Performances that were analysed include: (overall) success, competitiveness, reputation and innovativeness of the institution, as well as satisfaction of students and employees. These performances were selected because of their specific importance in the context of market orientation. Positive influence that market orientation has on all these performances was firstly confirmed by theoretical findings. Based on these findings, research questions and aims were set for empirical research that includes comparative analysis of interrelation of market orientation and performances of HEIs in Serbia and Finland. Research of this kind usually includes experimental research design, which here was not fully applicable because of impossibility to introduce experimental factor when needed. Therefore, the research method that was chosen instead is poll research that follows the logic of ex post facto experiment. The research was carried out on the population of study programmes, not HEIs, as it is assumed that management of institutions can use different business orientations in managing different programmes on the same institution. In accordance with the aims of this research, the research sample is defined. The sample is stratified, disproportional and random and includes study programmes of HEIs in Serbia and Finland. The realized sample includes 97 units (study programmes, 65 from Serbia and 32 from Finland). Data needed for hypotheses testing was gathered from December 2014 till March 2015. Interviewees (persons included in structures that manage study programmes from the sample or persons familiar with the relevant issues) were personally contacted. The ones that agreed to contribute to the research filled in the questionnaire uploaded on web locations. Gained data was analysed for the purpose of defined research hypotheses testing i.e. for determining eventual influence that market orientation has on HEIs' performances. Two levels of analysis were applied. First the analysis on the whole sample was realized in order to get zero level correlation. In addition to that, relation of market orientation and HEIs' performances was controlled by the factors for which it was assumed that they might have influence on this relation: 1. location of HEI on which study programme is realized (Serbia or Finland), 2. size of study programme, and 3. type of HEI on which study programme is realized (private and state-owned in Serbia; university and university of applied sciences in Finland). The defined aims determined the manner of hypotheses testing and achieving the aims set for empirical research, i.e. the use of specific statistical methods. Primarily the χ2test (and Fischer's exact test) and t-test (and Leven's test of equal variances) were used for tesView More
Keywords:marketing koncept, visokoškolske ustanove, konkurentnost, performanse, neprofitni sektor, tržišna orijentacija, poslovna orijentacija; marketing concept, higher education institutions, competitiveness, performances, non-profit sector, market orientation, business philosophy