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Adorno's philosophy of art : negativity and aesthetic theory

dc.contributor.advisorGrubor, Nebojša
dc.creatorNovaković, Marko
dc.date.accessioned2016-10-10T06:32:11Z
dc.date.available2016-10-10T06:32:11Z
dc.date.issued2016-09-13
dc.identifier.urihttp://eteze.bg.ac.rs/application/showtheses?thesesId=3939
dc.identifier.urihttps://fedorabg.bg.ac.rs/fedora/get/o:13239/bdef:Content/download
dc.identifier.urihttps://fedorabg.bg.ac.rs/fedora/get/o:13314/bdef:Izvestaj/download
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dc.identifier.urihttp://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/123456789/6726
dc.description.abstractRad Adornova filozofija umetnosti. Negativnost i estetska teorija posvećen je razmatranju ideje estetske teorije Teodora V. Adorna kao načina razumevanja negativnog pojma umetnosti, koji se ne može adekvatno shvatiti na način na koji tom problemu pristupa filozofska estetika. Prema tome, ovaj rad obrazlaže Adornov jedinstveni pristup razumevanju umetnosti. Adornov pristup filozofskom problemu umetnosti razlikuje se od tradicionalnih pristupa u estetici i filozofiji umetnosti, kao i od nekih estetičkih stanovišta u dvadesetom veku. Ovo istraživanje uzima u obzir da se takvo shvatanje ne ograničava samo na uži predmet filozofske estetike – umetnost i lepo – nego predmetni domen postavlja šire i uvide o karakteru savremene umetnosti proširuje na filozofiju istorije, društva i kulture. Rad polazi od ideje da se u Adornovom shvatanju umetnost i estetsko iskustvo pojavljuju na dva osnovna nivoa: jedan je tematski, u kome je filozofsko razmatranje okrenuto interpretaciji umetničkih dela u čijoj tehnici se ogledaju aktuelni istorijski procesi kojih je delo proizvod; drugi je metateorijski u kome estetičar mora da položi račun ne samo o umetničkom delu i materijalu, nego i o tome šta znači razumevanje i kako se umetničke tvorevine uopšte mogu razumeti. To je postavljeno kao polazni filozofski problem. Adorno je, uzimajući u obzir istorijske tendencije moderne muzike od sredine osamnaestog do polovine dvadesetog veka, pokazao zašto se umetnička dela ne mogu adekvatno razumeti koristeći standardni metod u filozofiji umetnosti. U prilog tome određene smernice na koje je u radu skrenuta pažnja dali su i klasični estetičari, pre svih osnivač estetike racionalist Baumgarten, a za njim i Kant. Pored toga, novi trendovi u avangardnoj muzici s početka dvadesetog veka Adornu su pružili i uputstva kako bi trebalo postaviti problem razumevanja umetnosti koja je u industrijskoj kulturi naizgled izgubila smisao i razlog postojanja. Ovaj problem je polazište Adornovog najvažnijeg rada o estetičkoj problematici, fragmenata Estetske teorije. Tu se umetnost tretira sa stanovišta negativnosti, pod kojom se podrazumeva nekoliko značenja: prvo je princip estetske autonomije i autonomni status umetnosti prema kome se ona posmatra kao područje estetskog oblika racionalnosti i mesto istine, pa time i kritike saznanja; drugo je položaj umetnosti istovremeno kao socijalne činjenice i zatvorene stvarnosti 2 dela, usled koga ona preuzima funkciju kritike društvene prakse; treće je zagonetni karakter umetničkih dela pred pokušajem pojmovnog saznanja iz čega proističe kritika teorijske estetike i njenog pojma umetnosti. Svi pomenuti aspekti su obrađeni polazeći od zajedničke premise: shvatanja umetničkog dela kao mesta pojavljivanja istine. Način na koji Adorno konceptualizuje pojam negativnog u umetnosti je dijalektički, što ga približava Hegelovom pojmu negativnosti. U radu se ispituje hipoteza da je u Adornovom shvatanju umetnosti zastupljena koncepcija interpretacije koju ne nazivamo estetikom, nego estetskom teorijom. Štaviše, estetska teorija je osobeni način mišljenja i shvatanje koje je prisutno u njegovom filozofskom pristupu raznim problemima. U slučaju filozofske estetike, s obzirom na postavku negativnosti umetnosti, dolazi do inverzije odnosa između estetskog iskustva i teorije, pa se estetski način posmatranja ne smatra samo temom teorijskog ispitivanja nego i načinom na koji filozof pokušava da interpretira istinu umetničkih dela. Ideja estetske teorije se u ovom razmatranju razlučuje od pojma teorijske estetike. Adorno tu ideju eksplicira tek u poznoj filozofiji, dok je u ranijim radovima prisutna samo implicitno. Kao uzor za ovakvu postavku razumevanja Adornu su poslužila shvatanja muzike kod predstavnika nove bečke škole: Šenberga, Berga i Veberna. Interpretacija nije više mogla da bude nešto odvojeno od estetskog iskustva, već je sada postala njegov deo, bez koga nova muzika nije mogla adekvatno da bude shvaćena. Pravo razumevanje umetnosti je ono u kome kompetentni posmatrač umetničku ideju razvija koristeći ne samo svoja čula nego ujedno i intelekt putem koga mu istina dela biva predstavljena kroz dijalektičke pojmove. Model za to je postupak muzičke analize koji se ovde razmatra u pojedinostima. Ovakav pristup nije omogućen standardnim shvatanjem filozofskog metoda kao logičkog dokazivanja, već upotrebom estetske sposobnosti koju Adorno naziva egzaktnom fantazijom. Delovanje ove sposobnosti prisutno je u dijalektičkom načinu mišljenja uopšte, ne samo o umetnosti. Centralna funkcija fantazije nagoveštena je već u ideji kritičke teorije, njenom shvatanju filozofske kritike, odnosa teorije i prakse, kao i u Adornovim ranim radovima od kojih se ovde uzimaju u obzir dva frankfurtska predavanja i studija o Kjerkegoru. Delatnost fantazije odslikava estetsku komponentu mišljenja i artikulacije ideja u jeziku, koja izlazi na videlo u suočavanju sa umetničkim delom. To je jedno od značenja pojma mimesis, koga Adorno u poznoj filozofiji uvodi kao korektiv pojmovnog mišljenja. Konačan rezultat rada je zaključak da u Adornovoj filozofiji umetnost nije shvaćena samo kao predmet filozofske estetike, nego i kao mesto na kome estetičar pronalazi uputstvo za kritičko razumevanje ne samo umetnosti, već i filozofije, ali potencijalno i celokupne aktuelne 3 kulture koja se u ovim oblastima pojavljuje. Ideja estetske teorije kontinuirano određuje Adornov pristup različitim filozofskim problemima, ali istovremeno otkriva i skriveni estetski potencijal filozofskog mišljenja.sr
dc.description.abstractDoctoral dissertation Adorno’s Philosophy of Art. Negativity and Aesthetic Theory is dedicated to investigation of Theodor W. Adorno’s idea of aesthetic theory as a way of understanding of the negative concept of art, which cannot be properly understood if we use the standard approach of traditional philosophical aesthetics. However, this understanding is being modified towards an aesthetic understanding which persists through Adorno’s philosophical oeuvre. This dissertation explicates his unique philosophical approach to art and aesthetics. Adorno’s approach to philosophical problem of art differs from traditional approaches in aesthetics and philosophy of art, as well as some aesthetic viewpoints in the 20th century. This investigation considers that such comprehension does not limit itself to narrow subject of philosophical aesthetics – art and beauty – but it’s insights on the nature of contemporary art expands on the fields of philosophy of history, society, and culture. This work starts out from the idea that Adorno’s understanding of art and aesthetic experience diferentiates two main levels: thematic, where philosophical consideration operates within interpretation of artworks, whose technical structure reflects objective historical process; the other is metatheoretical, where an aesthetician must give an account not only on works of art and it’s technique, but about the very act of understanding, what it means and how an artwork can be understood. This direction initiates a critique of conceptual frame of traditional aesthetics and philosophy of art. Adorno’s reconstruction of historical tendency of modern music since the mid 18th century shows why modern artworks cannot be properly understood with application of standard method of pilosophy of art. Certain theoretical insights were also given by calassical aestheticians, the founder of aesthetics Baumgarten and Kant. Besides, new trends in avant–garde music from the 1 beginning of 20th century gave Adorno instructions how to comprehend the problem of understanding of art which had seemingly lost it’s sense and reason for existence. This problem is a starting point of Adorno’s most significant work in the field of aesthetics, fragments of posthumously published Aesthetic Theory. This work treats art from the viewpoint of negativity. Negativity of art has several meanings: it is a principle of aesthetic autonomy, autonomous position of art, which claims art is a domain of aesthetic rationality and a place of truth, therefore critique of cognition; it marks contradictory position of art as a social fact and at the same time closed reality of work, which means that art has a function of a critique of social praxis; third, enigmatic character of artworks for conceptual cognition which implies a critique of theoretical aesthetics and a concept of art. The aforementioned aspects share a common feature: conception of art as a cognition. The way Adorno conceptualises the concept of negative in art is a dialectical one, which sets him close to Hegel’s concept of negativity. In this investigation we examine hypothese that in Adorno’s comprehension of art persists a mode of interpretation which we don’t call aesthetics, but aesthetc theory. Furthermore, aesthetic theory is a peculiar way of thinking which is present in Adorno’s philosophical approach to different problems. In the case of philosophical aesthetics, in respect of the idea of negativity of art, what happens is an inversion of the relation between aesthetic experience and theory, so that aesthetic way of observation becomes not only a theme of theoretical scrutiny, but also the way philosophers try to interpret truth of the works of art. The idea of aesthetic theory was explicitly developed in Adorno’s later philosophy. However, as a model for this concept of understanding Adorno accepted very early a new paradigm of atonality developed in music by Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern. Interpretation of musical works could not be separated from aesthetic experience, it became a part of this experience, which enabled a proper understanding of new music. Proper understanding of art is the one in which the competent recipient (listener) develops artistic idea using not only his senses, but intellect as well. Social truth of work is presented through dialectical mediation of concepts. Method of musical analysis is a proper model for that, and features of this method are presented in this dissertation. This approach is compatible not with traditional philosophical method of deduction, but with activities of the aesthetic ability named exact phantasy. Presentative functions of this ability are inseparable from dialectical way of thinking in general. It is anticipated in Horkheimer’s idea of critical theory, and introduced in more methodical fashion in early Adorno: two Frankfurt lectures and his study on Kierkegaard. Activity of fantasy reflects latent aesthetic component of 2 thinking and articulation of ideas in language, which comes forth in confrontation with the work of art. It is one of the meanings of mimesis, which was introduced in Negative dialectics as a corrective of irrationality of conceptual logic, as well as pervasive social irrationality. This insight is a heritage of Dialectic of Enlightenment. The final result of the dissertation is a conclusion that in Adorno’s philosophy art is not comprehended only as a subject of thought, but artistic behavior as a way of thinking was introduced into aesthetics. This insight was the result of a negative conception of art and aesthetic experience, their subversion of ordinary model of knowledge and social praxis, and the capacity for liberation. Adorno’s aesthetic theory embodies and presents this latent potential of every philosophical thinking.en
dc.formatapplication/pdf
dc.languagesr
dc.publisherУниверзитет у Београду, Филозофски факултетsr
dc.rightsAutorstvo-Nekomercijalno-Bez prerade 3.0 Srbija (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)
dc.sourceУниверзитет у Београдуsr
dc.subjectTeodor Adorno, filozofija umetnosti, estetika, nova muzika, estetska teorija, egzaktna fantazija, dijalektika, negativnost, mimesissr
dc.subjectTheodor W. Adorno, philosophy of art, aesthetics, new music, aesthetic theory, exact fantasy, dialectics, negativity, mimesisen
dc.titleAdornova filozofija umetnosti : negativnost i estetika umetnostisr
dc.titleAdorno's philosophy of art : negativity and aesthetic theoryen
dc.typeThesis
dcterms.abstractГрубор, Небојша; Новаковић, Марко; Aдорнова филозофија уметности : негативност и естетика уметности; Aдорнова филозофија уметности : негативност и естетика уметности;


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