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The influence of bile salts on simvastatin transport and metabolism in probiotic bacteria

dc.contributor.advisorMikov, Momir
dc.contributor.advisorSuvajdžić, Ljiljana
dc.contributor.otherStankov, Karmen
dc.contributor.otherStilinović, Nebojša
dc.contributor.otherVukmirović, Saša
dc.contributor.otherDobrić, Silva
dc.contributor.otherVasović, Velibor
dc.creatorĐanić, Maja
dc.date.accessioned2016-10-08T15:47:48Z
dc.date.available2016-10-08T15:47:48Z
dc.date.issued2016-09-15
dc.identifier.urihttp://www.cris.uns.ac.rs/DownloadFileServlet/Disertacija146642122029412.pdf?controlNumber=(BISIS)101272&fileName=146642122029412.pdf&id=6076&source=NaRDuS&language=srsr
dc.identifier.urihttp://www.cris.uns.ac.rs/record.jsf?recordId=101272&source=NaRDuS&language=srsr
dc.identifier.urihttp://www.cris.uns.ac.rs/DownloadFileServlet/IzvestajKomisije14664212310669.pdf?controlNumber=(BISIS)101272&fileName=14664212310669.pdf&id=6077&source=NaRDuS&language=srsr
dc.identifier.urihttp://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/123456789/6661
dc.description.abstractInterindividualne razlike u sastavu i aktivnosti crevne mikroflore mogu uticati na metabolizam lekova kao i na njihov konačan terapijski odgovor. Simvastatin je lek iz grupe statina i karakteriše ga izuzetno mala rastvorljivost u vodi, mala bioraspoloživost (<5%) i velike interindividualne razlike u terapijskom odgovoru čiji uzroci nisu u potpunosti objašnjeni. Poslednjih godina velika pažnja se posvećuje ispitivanjima žučnih kiselina u razvoju novih farmaceutskih formulacija zbog svoje uloge u solubilizaciji i modifikaciji prodora lekova kroz biološke membrane. Zbog svega navedenog, u fokusu našeg istraživanja su bile potencijalne interakcije između simvastatina, probiotskih bakterija i žučnih kiselina o kojima se vrlo malo zna, a od izuzetne su važnosti, zbog mogućeg uticaja na farmakokinetske i farmakodinamske osobine simvastatina, pa samim tim i na konačan terapijski odgovor kod pacijenta.Cilj istraživanja je bio da se ispita prodor i metabolizam simvastatina u probiotskim bakterijama kao i uticaj različitih žučnih kiselina na transport ovog leka u bakterijske ćelije. Takođe, cilj je bio da se ispita uticaj soli žučnih kiselina na distribucioni koeficijent simvastatina, kao i interakcije žučnih kiselina sa simvastatinom na nivou transportnih proteina probiotskih bakterija kako bi se objasnila priroda očekivanih interakcija.Identifikacija i kvantifikacija uzoraka vršena je metodom tečne hromatografije sa masenom spektrometrijom (LC-MS/MS). Korišćenjem programskih paketa VolSurf+ i Molinspiration, za identifikovane metabolite su izračunati molekulski deskriptori koji opisuju fizičko-hemijske i farmakokinetske osobine molekula. Određivanje distribucionog koeficijenta vršeno je Shake-flask metodom. Interakcije žučnih kiselina sa simvastatinom na nivou transportnih proteina probiotskih bakterija ispitane su doking studijama pomoću SwissDock programa. Prilikom dvadesetčetvoročasovne inkubacije sa probiotskim bakterijama uočen je statistički značajan pad koncentracije simvastatina u ekstracelularnom sadržaju. Ukupan sadržaj simvastatina, kao zbir ekstracelulamog i intracelularnog sadržaja, je tokom čitavog ispitivanog perioda bio statistički značajno niži u odnosu na kontrolnu grupu bez probiotika navodeći na zaključak da se deo simvastatina tokom vremena metabolisao pod dejstvom enzima ispitivanih bakterija. Detektovano je i identifikovano 8 metaboličkih produkata simvastatina. Na osnovu izračunatih vrednosti molekulskih deskriptora, očekuje se da će metabolit M-452, koji predstavlja hidroksilovani produkt simvastatinske kiseline, pokazati najbolje rezultate u pogledu fizičko-hemijskih osobina i bioraspoloživosti u biološkom sistemu. Žučne kiseline nisu dovele do statistički značajne modifikacije transporta simvastatina u/iz probiotskih bakterija. Ipak, u nekim vremenskim tačkama primećena je nešto veća koncentracija leka u ekstracelulamom prostoru u grupama sa žučnim kiselinama. Ove razlike se mogu delimično objasniti rezultatima određivanja distribucionog koeficijenta koji su pokazali da ispitivane žučne kiseline dovode do statistički značajnog smanjenja distribucionog koeficijenta simvastatina usled povećanja rastvorljivosti u vodenoj fazi. Rezultatima doking studija procenjeno je da ispitivane žučne kiseline imaju veći afinitet prema čak 80% multidrug transportera ispitivanih bakterija u odnosu na simvastatin što govori o mogućnosti ostvarivanja interakcija žučnih kiselina sa ovim lekom na nivou transportnih proteina probiotskih bakterija. Na osnovu dobijenih rezultata možemo zaključiti da probiotske bakterije imaju ogroman uticaj na sudbinu simvastatina u biološkom sistemu. Uzimajući u obzir činjenicu da probiotske bakterije ulaze u sastav normalne crevne flore i da svaki organizam poseduje specifičan bakterijski sastav, trebalo bi posvetiti više pažnje ispitivanju njegovog uticaja na farmakokinetiku lekova. Neophodna su dalja in vivo ispitivanja kako bi se utvrdila potencijalna farmakološka aktivnost identifikovanih metabolita simvastatina nastalih pod dejstvom enzimske aktivnosti probiotskih bakterija. Povećanje rastvorljivosti simvastatina pomoću žučnih kiselina otvara mogućnost za dalja istraživanja u cilju razvoja novih farmaceutskih formulacija sa poboljšanom bioraspoloživosti i farmakokinetskim osobinama.sr
dc.description.abstractInterindividual differences in the composition and activity of the gut microflora may affect the metabolism of drugs as well as their final therapeutic response. Simvastatin is drug from the group of statins and has extremely low water solubility, low bioavailability (<5%) and high interindividual differences in therapeutic response whose causes are not fully understood. In recent years, great attention has been paid to studies of bile acids in the development of new pharmaceutical formulations because of their role in the drug solubilization and modification of drug transport through biological membranes. Accordingly, interactions between simvastatin, probiotic bacteria and bile acids were the focus of our research due to great importance and potential influence on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of simvastatin, and therefore the final therapeutic response in the patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the simvastatin transport and metabolism in probiotic bacteria as well as the effect of various bile acids on drug transport into the bacterial cell. Additonally, the aim was to investigate the influence of bile salts on the distribution coefficient of simvastatin, and the interactions of bile acids with simvastatin at the level of probiotic transport proteins in order to elucidate the nature of expected interactions. Identification and quantification of samples were performed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Molecular descriptors that describe the physico-chemical and pharmacokinetic properties of identified metabolites were calculated using the software packages VolSurf+ and Molinspiration. Determination of the distribution coefficient was performed using Shake-flask method. Interaction of bile acids with simvastatin at the level of bacterial transport proteins were studied using docking studies with SwissDock program. During the twenty-four hours of incubation with probiotic bacteria, simvastatin concentrations in the extracellular contet showed a statistically significant decrease. The total amount of simvastatin, as the sum of the extracellular and intracellular amount, during the whole study period, was significantly lower in comparison with control group without probiotics, suggesting that the part of simvastatin was metabolized by the enzymatic activity of studied bacteria. Accordingly, eight metabolic products of simvastatin were detected and identified. Based on the calculated values of molecular descriptors, it is expected that the metabolite M-452, which is the hydroxylated product of simvastatin acid, will show the best results in terms of physico-chemical properties and bioavailability in biological system. Bile acids did not show a significant influence on simvastatin transport into probiotic bacteria. However, in some time points, slightly higher drug concentrations in the extracellular medium in groups with bile acids were observed. These differences can be partly explained by the results of the determination of the distribution coefficients which showed that investigated bile acids lead to a statistically significant decrease in simvastatin distribution coefficient due to increased solubility in the aqueous phase. The results of docking studies estimated that studied bile acids have stronger affinities for the 80% of bacterial multidrug transporters compared to simvastatin indicating the possibility of achieving the interactions of bile acids with simvastatin at the level of transport proteins of probiotic bacteria. Based on the obtained results it could be concluded that probiotic bacteria have great influence on the fate of simvastatin in a biological system. Taking into account the fact that probiotic bacteria are the normal part of gut microflora and that each individual has specific bacterial fingerprint, more attention should be paid on studying its influence on drug pharmakocinetics. Further in vivo studies are required in order to determine potential pharmacological activity of identified simvastatin metabolites. Increased water solubility of simvastatin with bile acids may open the possibility for further investigations with the aim of development of new pharmaceutical formulation with improved bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties.en
dc.languagesr (latin script)
dc.publisherУниверзитет у Новом Саду, Медицински факултетsr
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs
dc.sourceУниверзитет у Новом Садуsr
dc.subjectžučne kiseline i solisr
dc.subjectBile Acids and Saltsen
dc.subjectLiquiden
dc.subjectGastrointestinal Microbiomeen
dc.subjectSimvastatinen
dc.subjectProbioticsen
dc.subjectPharmacokineticsen
dc.subjectMembrane Transport Proteinsen
dc.subjectChromatographyen
dc.subjectsimvastatinsr
dc.subjectprobioticisr
dc.subjectfarmakokinetikasr
dc.subjectmembranski transportni proteinisr
dc.subjecttečna hromatografijasr
dc.subjectcrevna mikroflorasr
dc.titleUticaj soli žučnih kiselina na prodor i metabolizam simvastatina u probiotskim bakterijamasr
dc.titleThe influence of bile salts on simvastatin transport and metabolism in probiotic bacteriaen
dc.typeThesissr
dcterms.abstractМиков, Момир; Сувајджић, Љиљана; Стилиновић, Небојша; Вукмировић, Саша; Добрић, Силва; Васовић, Велибор; Станков, Кармен; Ђанић, Маја; Утицај соли жучних киселина на продор и метаболизам симвастатина у пробиотским бактеријама; Утицај соли жучних киселина на продор и метаболизам симвастатина у пробиотским бактеријама;


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