Primena koncepta individualizacije u stambenoj arhitekturi u kontekstu unapređenja kvaliteta višeporodičnog stanovanja u Srbiji
Stoiljković, Branislava P.
Faculty:Универзитет у Нишу, Грађевинско-архитектонски факултет
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This paper deals with the research of the potential of improvement of multifamily housing quality, by implementing the individualization concept in housing architecture. The thesis is a continuation of the research conducted in the framework of the master thesis "Contemporary tendencies in housing architecture: towards individualization of multi-family housing" and represents its further elaboration and improvement. The advantages of a single-family housing, and disadvantages of the multi-family housing lead to considering the individual family housing a more quality and more humane type of housing, and it has always been a desire of most of the people. Yet, further research of one and the other type of housing reveals a complex mixture of advantages and disadvantages, so the need for the concept representing synergy of advantages of one and the other type - synthesis of a house and an apartment has arisen. The concept of individualization in the housing architecture comprises a broad and
comprehensive approach which refers to the identification of those characteristics of single-family housing whose application in the multifamily housing will contribute to the increase of the degree of its individuality, and thus to the improvement of its quality. The basic goal of this research is a scientific explanation of the individualization concept as a contemporary tendency in housing architecture and determination of theoretical and practical models of implementation of this concept for the purpose of improvement of multi-family housing in Serbia. The research starts from the working hypothesis comprising that defining of the way in which the individualization of multi-family housing is related to the housing quality bears a special importance in the process of identification of appropriate models of improvement of architectural organization of multi-family housing, i.e. that the degree of individualization of multi-family housing is the directly defining conditioning the quality of housing. The complexity of the problem dealt with by this research, as well as the multi-disciplinary basis of the research, call for an implementation of the complex scientific apparatus consisting of several research methods: basic scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, classification, induction and deduction), general scientific methods (methods of modeling and comparison) and methods and techniques of data acquisition (empirical knowledge method, case study and survey). For several decades, in the developed courtiers, and increasingly in the neighboring countries in the recent period, there has been high awareness of all the actors in planning and construction of multi-family housing buildings of the importance of individualization for this type of housing. Separation, isolation, seclusion and anonymity of users (needs characterizing contemporary urban housing) are demands for individualization in the fundamental sense. However, in a broader sense, individualization means recognition and analysis of all the characteristics of single-family housing which render it an attractive and desirable form of housing, and their implementation in the multi-family housing. Separate entrances to the apartments, large open areas belonging to them, organization of housing units in several levels, planning for the areas intended for mutual interaction of the residents are only some of them. The qualities of a single-family, within multi-family housing are achieved by implementing the modality of functional, spatial and formal organization of housing units and their environment present in the single-family housing. In Serbia nowadays, it is necessary to comprehensively approach the improvement of the quality of multi-family housing. Apart from the changes of economic-political and socialcultural conditions, which are out of the scope of direct action of the architects, it is necessary to change the designing approach but also the corresponding legal regulations. By implementing the individualization concept, acceptable housing densities in the city can be combined, as well as other advantage of multi-family housing and an always present desire for individuality and living in one’s own house, which would make multi-family housing a preferred form of housing. The research conducted within this paper indicates what is the users’ opinion and what their wishes are, when it comes to the individualization of multifamily housing - the tenants recognize the modalities of individualization, and reach affirmatively and create the priority lists when choosing their housing. Nevertheless, when it comes to the implementation of this concept, the codes, regulations, and standards which regulate the areas of housing building designing and housing districts arrangement should also be modernized, in several terms. In order for the architects to increasingly implement individualization modalities in the future designing of multi-family housing, it is necessary that they have the legal regulations support, which would provide a better understanding by the investors. In such conditions, the housing quality will certainly by improved, and thus, the users will be more satisfied. Multi-family housing is a necessary choice if increasing number of people is to be accommodated in the cities in a sustainable manner. This research indicates that the application of the individualization concept in the housing architecture - or the development of the model of single-family houses in multi-family housing - is a extremely useful approach of the growing problem of lacking housing space, sprawl of cities, need to affirm own individuality, etc. It suggests combining and modification of already known types and forms of single-family and multi-family housing construction and indicates that solutions within multi-family housing, which apart from their own, use the advantages of the single familyones, provide potential for individualization, humanization and improvemView More
Keywords:porodično stanovanje; single-family housing; multi-family housing; quality; contemporary tendencies; modalities of individualization; legal regulations; višeporodično stanovanje; kvalitet; savremene tendencije; modaliteti individualizacije; zakonska regulativa