Film i tržište : vidovi komercijalizacije savremenog holivudskog filma
Đorđević, Đorđe P.
Faculty:Универзитет у Нишу, Филозофски факултет
Janković, Aleksandar S.
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In scientific literature (foreign and domestic) there is an extremely small number of sociological papers on contemporary film commercialization. It is usually generalized without any concrete and detailed research of this phenomenon, particularly not on a big and relevant sample. Contemporary science is mostly dominated by film reception researches (including all its effects on its audience), but there are no researches of the production and types of contemporary Hollywood film commercialization. There is a lack of sociological papers on this subject while the already written papers are usually reduced to either one or few most evident types of commercialization of film. There is no single approach that would, in the context of the sociocultural context of creation of Hollywood film, prove that film commercialization does exist, what it is characterised by and what its contemporary and former types are. An understanding of film commercialisation in the theoretical and metho
is only possible if today’s commercialization of society, culture and media is perceived in its entirety. A social determination of spiritual life, as opposed to the immanence theory, discusses the social aspect of the spirit, as previously discussed by Karl Mannheim. The social elements of sociability are, perhaps more than in other forms of art, present in creative processes on film. In recent years there have been some changes not only of contemporary science, culture and technique, but also of the very concept of film market which have crucially influenced the appearance of numerous completely new types of Hollywood film commercialization. Taking into account the fact that these are new techniques of commercialization, they have not been explored so far (the collective author of the script, the principle of political correctness, the unexpected ending, film serials, ''extended films'', guest stars, the strategy of ''market followers'', parodying the popular, film computerization, virtual actors, interactive film etc). Commercialization implies a consumeristic style of perceiving the product of culture and being guided by the profit logic. Creativity is substituted for production, while originality and artistic creation are replaced by market demands. Serial production replaces what was previously positively accepted by general audience. Hollywood production is dominated by expensive blockbusters and numerous film serials which go on for years. Such Hollywood films become a model which is immitated by smaller productions throughout the world, trying to gain a higher viewer rating with audiences. The global film audience in the contemporary world is the key stakeholder of film companies. Within the conditions of transnational media corporations existence, which are at the same time the owners of film studios, the contemporary film becomes a commodity intended for the market, subject to its demands. A Hollywood film is not only commercialized but at the same time it is a harbinger of the idea which will also be commercialized in numerous respects. After the film and based on the film there will be many media and outside media products (e.g., line of products). In this paper the socio-cultural approach is all-embracing so that attention will also be paid to the integral phenomena of film commercialization such as trailers, film advertisements, public relations, media film spinning, outside media aspects of film commercialization and youth subculture of film fans, theme parks etc. Commercialization of the contemporary Hollywood film today involves several phases. It is present in the shooting preparation phase, shooting announcement and shooting phase, shooting reporting phase, but is continued even during its ending, advertising promotion, cinema premiere, subsequent television broadcast and the issue of the DVD – until the next remake which will meet the film audience in several years' time, enriched by multiple special effects or in a 3D version. Aside from the global public, the existence of new film markets was of crucial influence on an additional commercialization of the Hollywood film. The Hollywood production exploits combining of more different topics, motifs and ideas but at the same time tries to find the lowest common denominators for different audience segments. A respect of the First and Second Amendment of the United States Constitution and the promotion of Jefferson's pursuit of happiness constitute an important part of the American culture of a love of freedom and the backbone of the American myth, which is reflected in the cinematography as well. The middle class values, personal initiative and the ideal of the selfmade man have dominated the American film for decades, while in the recent years the principle of political correctness is also present. Even at the stage of script creation, the collective author (creative team) transforms each Hollywood film into a commercially payable product. The key idea is to adapt to the taste of the average individual from the audience. On the other hand, some densely populated markets, such as the Chinese, due to a large number of potential visitors of the cinema show, will influence what kind of films Hollywood will vreate and how it will display certain themes that may be controversial in the opinion of their authorities. The contemporary era at the same time allows for a number of different ''readings'' of each film creation by different segments within the film audience. The Hollywood film is characterised by an almost complete availability for everyone at any time, thanking to the development of the contemporary technology. By combining the method of empirical research of the films themselves and the modern theoretical knowledge, this paper attempts to completely clarify the phenomenon of the commercialization of the contemporary Hollywood film. The principle - from empiricalView More
Keywords:film, kultura, masovni mediji, komercijalizacija, tržište, Holivud, američki filmovi, filmski serijali; Film, Culture, Mass Media, Commercialization, Market, Hollywood, American movies, film serials