Integralni model sistemskog pristupa upravljanja rizikom od hemijskih udesa na lokalnom nivou
Cvetanović, Sveta G.
Faculty:Универзитет у Нишу, Факултет заштите на раду
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The twentieth century, despite a number of armed conflicts, was marked by numerous natural disasters and accidents of various kinds with troubling consequences. At the beginning of the 21st century, a man is forced to change their attitude towards the environment and must undertake numerous measures to preserve itfor the future survival of humanity and the natural world. The new civilization realizes his living with significant adverse impacts on the biosphere, global climate change, the destruction of certain species of flora and fauna, the problems of waste disposal, increasing the morbidity and mortality of people and others. Harmful effects can basically be: health, social, economic, environmental and security. Accidents at chemical facilities in the 20th century activated the scientific-methodological and organizational activities to create a security system. Every accident is typically accompanied by injuries and killing people and great material losses, as well as high levels of
pollution. Particularly large effects are manifested by chemical accidents in local communities. This raises the problem of how to better and more efficiently organize and prepare the community to these threats; provide better coordination and operation of activities and measures for the prevention of accidental conditions and bring significant long-term and short-term changes in social and technological development that will be sustainable. Therefore, research has social interest and unambiguous theoretical, but practical as well. The overall objective of the research is the integration of existing scientific directions in the study of chemical hazards and risks in order to obtain the resulting solution management functions to minimize the risk of chemical accidents, based on a systemic approach, conceived for the local level. The complexity of the research has conditioned to, after the introduction, process conceptual definition of chemical hazards and hazardous substances; review the sources of pollution of working environment and environment when working with hazardous substances; defined chemical accidents and determine the risk of chemical accidents (risk management, management models, methods of assessment, subjects in management, cumulative risk, the proposal of model of integrated management of chemical accidents at the local level); make recommendations for information in chemical accidents; as well as recommendations for the normative arrangement in the field of chemical accidents with the conclusion remarks of the results achieved in the study. Thus the subject of research are chemical accidents at the local level and integrated risk management model, based on the synthesis of methods of systematic approach to planning, assessing, treating and monitoring risks of chemical accidents. Risk management in the accident situations is exposed through elaboration: theoretical and methodological bases of formation of the management system in terms of chemical accidents; models and methods of prevention planning, strategic and operational management; Method of subjects mobilization in operations management liquidation of accidental situations; methods of modeling and analysis of accidental situations using modern mathematical apparatus; system for IT support processes and rapid supply of information. The research starts from the basic hypothesis, which is proven in work, until now developed methodological research directions in the study of chemical hazards and risks, provide the basis of systematic approach to research, formation management functions to minimize the risk of chemical accidents at the local level. The paper presents research that is based on the application of general scientific methods, special methods of knowledge (structural, functional, causal, comparative analysis and generic) and a series of special methods. Among our research tasks we especially emphasize the classification phases of the accident. We believe that the classification of the four phases of the accident, which is usually reported in the literature, is incomplete and inadequate, or does not provide the information necessary for the proper temporal and spatial understanding of chemical accidents. By the same criterion of division we propose classification with seven phases of the accident. The scientific contribution represents structuration indicators dangerous function of hazardous substances, taking into account the vagueness of their contact with humans and the environment, which is necessary to obtain different procedures risk assessment due to pollution of air, water and soil in chemical accidents. The established criteria for assessing the intensity, duration and quantity of emissions of hazardous substances in all aspects of the environment on the basis of physical and chemical parameters were established. Accordingly, the qualitative and quantitative relationships and conditioning properties of hazardous materials is given, as well as their behavior in the working and natural environment. Assessment of the consequences of chemical accidents to the environment and population is given complex, with known aspects referred to in the literature. However, the risk assessment are based on the analysis of the potential impacts of chemical accidents and to every sphere of environment in particular, and degree of influence we concretized by relevant quantitative data (parameters, indexes, etc.). The study analyzed the technological specifics of facilities and establishing evaluation criteria and ranking of risk objects. In the process of evaluation of the functions of the business activities of entities involved in the management of environmental risks has analyzed. The bases of analysis are professional literature and the results of research that were carried out in our country and the world in the field of chemical accidents at the local level. The proposed integrated model of systematic approach to risk mView More
Keywords:hemijska opasnost; chemical hazards; hemijski udes; rizik od hemijskog udesa; metode procene rizika; opasne materije; ispuštanje opasnih materija; požari i eksplozije; upravljanje hemijskim udesima na lokalnom nivou; chemical accidents; the risk of chemical accidents; methods of risk assessment; hazardous materials; discharge of hazardous substances; fires and explosions; chemical accidents management at the local level