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Development of aesthetic preference of visual stimuli

dc.contributor.advisorMarković, Slobodan
dc.contributor.otherMirić, Jovan
dc.contributor.otherKnežević, Goran
dc.contributor.otherŠkorc, Bojana
dc.creatorJanković, Dragan R.
dc.date.accessioned2016-03-20T16:59:03Z
dc.date.available2016-03-20T16:59:03Z
dc.date.issued2015-02-13
dc.identifier.urihttp://eteze.bg.ac.rs/application/showtheses?thesesId=2610
dc.identifier.urihttps://fedorabg.bg.ac.rs/fedora/get/o:10692/bdef:Content/download
dc.identifier.urihttp://vbs.rs/scripts/cobiss?command=DISPLAY&base=70036&RID=525291159
dc.identifier.urihttp://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/123456789/4956
dc.description.abstractZa različite aspekte sveta koji nas okružuje, bilo da su u pitanju objekti, priroda, drugi ljudi, umetnička dela, relativno lako možemo da kažemo koliko nam se sviđaju ili ne sviđaju, koliko su nam lepi ili ružni. Međutim, pokušaj da se pruži odgovor na pitanje zašto neke objekte doživljavamo kao lepe ili ružne se, nakon vekova teorijskog razmatranja u okviru filozofije i empirijskog izučavanja u okviru psihologije, pokazao kao ni malo lak. S obzirom da pokušaji objašnjenja estetske preferencije objektivnim karakteristikama stimulusa nisu pokazali zadovoljavajuće rezultate, fokus istraživanja se u poslednje vreme sve više usmerava ka različitim subjektivnim faktorima kao uzročnicima estetske preferencije. U ovoj studiji objašnjenju fenomena estetske preferencije smo pristupili iz okvira dimenzionalnih teorija emocija, preciznije, iz okvira trodimenzionalnog modela afektivnog doživljaja do koga smo došli u našim prethodnim istraživanjima. Time smo u ovom radu, u odnosu na prethodne radove koji su se bavili razvojem estetske preferencije slika, pomerili fokus interesovanja sa sadržaja koje preferiraju ispitanici različitih uzrasta, na mehanizme koji stoje u osnovi estetske preferencije na različitim uzrastima. Cilj ovog rada je bio da ispitamo prirodu povezanosti tri dimenzije afektivnog doživljaja (valence, pobuđenosti i kognitivne evaluacije) i estetske preferencije slika kod ispitanika uzrasta 9, 13 i 18 godina. Izvedeno je 6 istraživanja kojima je ispitivano: kakva je povezanost tri afektivne dimenzije i estetske preferencije kod ispitanika različitog uzrasta (Istraživanje 1), koje kriterijume ispitanici različitog uzrasta koriste pri estetskoj proceni slika, i kakva je povezanost afektivnog doživljaja tih kriterijuma i estetske preferencije (Istraživanje 2), kakav je uticaj valence (prijatnosti) stimulusa na estetsku preferenciju kod ispitanika tri iii uzrasta (Istraživanje 3), kakav je uticaj povećanja poznatosti stimulusa (usled prethodne izloženosti) na estetsku preferenciju kod ispitanika tri uzrasta (Istraživanje 4), kakav je efekat lakoće procesiranja na estetsku preferenciju kod ispitanika tri uzrasta (Istraživanje 5), kakav je odnos valence (prijatnosti) i pobuđenosti (upečatljivosti, zanimljivosti, pobuđenosti) pri estetskoj proceni vizuelnih stimulusa kod ispitanika iz tri uzrasne grupe (Istraživanje 6). Rezultati Istraživanja 1 su pokazali da su valenca, pobuđenost i kognitivna evaluacija visoko korelirani sa estetskom preferencijom na sva tri uzrasta, kao i da sa porastom uzrasta raste korelacija valence sa estetskom preferencijom, dok korelacija pobuđenosti i kognitivne evaluacije sa estetskom preferencijom opada. Strukturalni model relacija evaluativnih dimenzija i estetske preferencije je sugerisao da postoji direktno kauzalno delovanje valence i pobuđenosti na estetsku preferenciju dok se uticaj kognitivne evaluacije ostvaruje većim delom preko druge dve evaluativne dimenzije i to prevashodno preko pobuđenosti. Rezultati Istraživanja 2 su pokazali da ispitanici različitog uzrasta uzimaju različite kriterijume u obzir prilikom donošenja estetske odluke. Sa porastom uzrasta opada značaj perceptivnih kriterijuma (tema, boja, perceptivne asocijacije), a raste značaj kognitivnih (formalni aspekti slike i kognitivna elaboracija) i afektivnih kriterijuma pri doživljaju slike kao lepe ili ružne. Na osnovu modela sa tri afektivne dimenzije kao prediktorima estetske preferencije, na uzrastu od 18 godina oko 98% varijanse estetske preferencje slika može da se objasni valencom, pobuđenošću i kognitivnom evaluacijom pojedinačnih značenja koja su aktivirana u svesti ispitanika pri posmatranju slike (96% na uzrastu od 13 godina i oko 94% na uzrastu od 9 godina). Drugim rečima, što su brojna značenja koja slika izaziva kod ispitanika prijatnija, jasnija i više pobuđujuća, to će slika biti ocenjena kao lepša. Rezultati Istraživanja 3 u kome je korićena procedura afektivnog primovanja su pokazali da sa porastom valence stimulusa-primova raste iv estetska preferencija prethodno neutralnih stumulusa-meta u istoj meri kod ispitanika iz sve tri uzrasne grupe. Rezulati Istraživanja 4 su pokazali da se na uzrastu od 18 godina dobija očekivani pozitivni efekat prethodne izloženosti stimulusa na estetsku preferenciju, na uzrastu od 13 godina efekat nije bio značajan, dok je na uzrastu od 9 godina dobijen obrnuti efekat prethodne izlozenosti. Rezultati Istraživanja 5 su pokazali da lakoća procesiranja sadržaja slike u istoj meri doprinosi estetskoj preferenciji slike kod ispitanika sva tri uzrasta (tj. jasnije, razumljivije, smislenije slike se preferiraju više od nejasnih, nerazumljivih i besmislenih u istoj meri na sva tri uzrasta). Rezultati Istraživanja 6 su ukazali na postojanje složene interakcije valence i pobuđenosti pri estetskoj preferenciji slika. Naime, kada su stimulusi jasno obojeni kao prijatni ili neprijatni ispitanici uzrasta 9 i 13 godina estetsku odluku dominantno donose na osnovu valence stimulusa, međutim kada stimulusi nemaju valencu, tj. kada je valenca stimulusa neutralna, onda dominantan kriterijum za estetsko preferiranje postaje pobuđenost stimulusa i to na taj način da se preferiraju više pobuđujući stimulusi. Dobijeni rezultati su diskutovani u kontekstu postojećih teorija i modela estetske preferencije koji su predlagani u okviru eksperimentalne estetike i razvojne psihologije. Na osnovu rezultata istraživanja do kojih smo došli u ovom radu, predložili smo VACe (Valence, Arousal and Cognitive evaluation) model estetske preferencije za koji smatramo da može da ponudi adekvatan teorijski okvir za interpretaciju i dalje izučavanje fenomena estetske preferencije.sr
dc.description.abstractHumans can relatively easily describe various aspects of the world that surrounds us (objects, nature, other people or works of art) as something that they like or dislike, and as beautiful or ugly. However, an attempt to provide an answer to the question why we experience certain objects as beautiful or ugly has turned out to be quite difficult, in spite of centuries of philosophical theorising, as well as, more recently, empirical research in psychology. Early efforts to address this question within psychology, i.e. to interpret and explain aesthetic preference by objective features of stimuli have not reached fruitful results; therefore, focus of more recent research has shifted to different subjective factors as determinants of aesthetic preference. In this study, we approached the phenomenon of aesthetic preference using the framework of dimensional theories of emotion, more precisely, the three-dimensional model of affective experience, which we developed in our previous research. Due to such an approach, the current study (in comparison to other studies that have addressed the aesthetic development), has shifted its focus from content preferred by participants of different age groups to mechanisms underlying the aesthetic preference at different ages. This study was aimed at analysing the nature of connections between three dimensions of affective experience (valence, arousal, cognitive evaluation) and aesthetic preference of visual stimuli (paintings, photographs and abstract visual patterns) in participants from different age groups (9-, 13- and 18 year-olds). In total, six research studies were carried out. The Study 1 examined correlations between three affective dimensions and aesthetic preference in participants of different age groups. The Study 2 addressed the following issue: which criteria have been used by participants of different ages in aesthetic judgments of vi paintings, and also examined links between affective experience of these criteria and aesthetic preference. In the Study 3, we examined the impact of valence (pleasantness of stimuli) on aesthetic preference in participants of the above-mentioned three age groups, whereas the Study 4 was focused on the impact of increasing familiarity (due to mere exposure) on aesthetic preference in participants of different ages. The effect of processing fluency on aesthetic preference in different age groups was examined in the Study 5. Finally, the relations between valence (pleasantness) and arousal (impressiveness, interestingness, etc.) in a process of aesthetic assessment of visual stimuli (in different age groups) were analysed in the Study 6. Results of the Study 1 indicated that valence, arousal and cognitive evaluation were highly correlated with aesthetic preference in all three age groups. Correlation between valence and aesthetic preference has increased with age, while the correlation between arousal and cognitive evaluation on one side, and aesthetic preference on the other has decreased with age. Structural model of relations between affective dimensions and aesthetic preference implied direct causal relations of valence and arousal on aesthetic preference, while the effect of cognitive evaluation has been mostly mediated by the other two affective dimensions (primarily, by arousal). The Study 2 revealed that participants of different ages relied on different criteria in a process of reaching an aesthetic decision. As age increased, the impact of perceptive criteria (such as topic, colour, perceptive associations) decreased, while the relevance of cognitive (including formal aspects of the painting, and cognitive elaboration) and affective criteria increased. Relying on the model of three affective dimensions as predictors of aesthetic preference, about 98% of variance in aesthetic preference of paintings in the age group of 18-year-olds (96% of variance in the group of 13-year-olds, and 94% in the youngest group of nine-year-olds, respectively) was explained by valence, arousal and cognitive evaluation of particular vii meanings activated in participants’ minds while they watched the paintings. In other words, a particular painting was experienced as more beautiful as various meanings elicited by the painting were more pleasant, more clear and more arousing. Results of the Study 3 (in which the procedure of affective priming was used) implied that an increase in valence of primes led to an increase in aesthetic preference of previously neutral targets (Chinese ideograms), to the same extent in all three age groups. In the Study 4, it turned out that the expected effect of mere exposure of stimuli on the aesthetic preference was obtained only in the age group of 18-year-olds. In the age group of 13-year-olds, the effect of mere exposure was not statistically significant, while in the youngest age group (nine-year-olds), such an effect was reversed. The Study 5 showed that processing fluency of the cubistic paintings’ content contributed to aesthetic preference to the same extent in all three age groups, i.e. stimuli with higher content accessibility were preferred in comparison to stimuli with lower content accessibility (to the same extent in all three age groups). Results of the Study 6 implied a complex interaction of conditioned valence and arousal in aesthetic preference of (previously neutral) Chinese ideograms. Namely, when stimuli were distinctively pleasant or unpleasant, aesthetic decision in younger age groups (nine and 13 years of age) relied primarily on valence of stimuli. In contrast, when stimuli had no valence (when the valence of stimuli was neutral), the conditioned arousal became the dominant criterion for aesthetic preference (highly arousing stimuli were preferred). The obtained results were discussed from the perspective of the existing theories and models of aesthetic preference that have been developed within experimental aesthetics and developmental psychology. Relying on the findings of this research study, we have suggested the VACe (Valence, Arousal and Cognitive evaluation) model of aesthetic viii preference that, in our opinion, may provide an appropriate theoretical framework for interpretation and further exploration of the phenomenon of aesthetic preference.en
dc.formatapplication/pdf
dc.languagesr
dc.publisherУниверзитет у Београду, Филозофски факултетsr
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MESTD/Basic Research (BR or ON)/179033/RS//
dc.rightsAutorstvo-Nekomercijalno 3.0 Srbija (CC BY-NC 3.0)
dc.sourceУниверзитет у Београдуsr
dc.subjectestetska preferencijasr
dc.subjectaesthetic preferenceen
dc.subjectestetski razvojsr
dc.subjectvalencasr
dc.subjectpobuđenostsr
dc.subjectkognitivna evaluacijasr
dc.subjecteksperimentalna estetikasr
dc.subjectVACe model estetske preferencijesr
dc.subjectvalenceen
dc.subjectarousalen
dc.subjectcognitive evaluationen
dc.subjectaesthetic developmenten
dc.subjectexperimental aestheticsen
dc.subjectVACe model of aesthetic preferencesen
dc.titleRazvoj estetske preferencije slikasr
dc.titleDevelopment of aesthetic preference of visual stimulien
dc.typeThesis
dcterms.abstractМарковић, Слободан; Мирић, Јован; Кнежевић, Горан; Шкорц, Бојана; Јанковић, Драган Р.; Развој естетске преференције слика; Развој естетске преференције слика;


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