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Diachronic analysis of certain aspects of otherness in anglophone literature

dc.contributor.advisorĐorić-Francuski, Biljana
dc.contributor.otherJovanović, Aleksandra
dc.contributor.otherPavlović, Tomislav
dc.creatorTodorović, Ivana M.
dc.date.accessioned2016-01-05T13:42:08Z
dc.date.available2016-01-05T13:42:08Z
dc.date.issued2013-05-07
dc.identifier.urihttp://eteze.bg.ac.rs/application/showtheses?thesesId=450
dc.identifier.urihttps://fedorabg.bg.ac.rs/fedora/get/o:6269/bdef:Content/download
dc.identifier.urihttp://vbs.rs/scripts/cobiss?command=DISPLAY&base=70036&RID=43933455
dc.identifier.urihttp://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/123456789/4010
dc.descriptionTemeljeći se na pretpostavci da književnost često verno reflektuje društvenu i geopolitičku stvarnost, te tako i proces stvaranja ‘drugog’, izvesne prateće pojave tog procesa i položaj ‘drugog’ u realnim društvenim kontekstima, ova doktorska disertacija posvećena je istraživanju pojma drugosti putem interpretacije reprezentativnih dela anglofone književnosti. Iako su pojmovi drugosti i ‘drugog’ veoma zastupljeni u psihoanalitičkoj, postkolonijalnoj i savremenoj političkoj teoriji, pregled obimne literature pokazao je da je nedovoljno ispitano na koji način su inkorporirani u književnost. Doprinos ovog rada bila bi podrobna analiza izvesnog broja književnih dela anglofonih pisaca različitih epoha, putem koje bi se ispratile dijahronijske promene statusa ‘drugog’, različitih vidova konstrukcije ‘drugog’ i praksi karakterističnih za taj proces, faktora percipiranja drugosti, kao i odnosa prema ‘drugom' od kolonijalnih početaka do današnjice. Cilj rada je da se na osnovu takvog čitanja ovih dela proširi znanje o samom konceptu drugosti. Ključne metode korišćene u radu su analitičko-interpretativna metoda, generalizacija i indukcija. Na osnovu prethodno sačinjene bibliografije teorijskih i književnih dela i ključnih pitanja relevantnih za temu disertacije, odabrani su književni tekstovi reprezentativni za svaki od segmenata rada, na koje su primenjeni teorijski postulati i koji se tumače u postojećim okvirima psihoanalitičke i postkolonijalne teorije. Reč je o sledećim delima: drama Bura Vilijama Šekspira (Shakespeare), romani Robinzon Kruso i Dalje avanture Robinzona Krusoa Danijela Defoa (Defoe), Ujka Tomina koliba Harijet Bičer Stou (Stowe), Najplavlje oko Toni Morison (Morrison), Jedno putovanje u Indiju E. M. Forstera (Forster), Čarobnica iz Firence Salmana Ruždija (Rushdie), Zbogom za kosa Anite Desai (Desai), Nasleđeni gubitak Kiran Desai (Desai), Iščekujući varvare i Sramota Dž. M. Kucija (Coetzee) i četiri pripovetke Hanifa Kurejšija (Kureishi). Rad se, kao što je napomenuto, poziva na psihoanalitičku i postkolonijalnu teoriju. Pri tome je od centralnog značaja dihotomija ‘drugi’/‘Drugi’ koju je uveo Žak DIJAHRONIJSKA ANALIZA NEKIH ASPEKATA DRUGOSTI U ANGLOFONOJ KNJIŽEVNOSTI II Lakan (Lacan), a koja je naknadno primenjena na kolonijalni/postkolonijalni kontekst. Prema Lakanu, ‘drugi’ se formira u takozvanom Stadijumu ogledala (kada je dete staro 6-18 meseci), a javlja se u vidu lika u ogledalu koji detetu pruža zaokruženu i savršeniju viziju sopstva, te postaje osnova za ego. ‘Drugi’ je otelovljen u roditelju ili staratelju u čijem pogledu dete postoji i koji oblikuje identitet deteta (Lacan 1977: 1–7). Za rad je daleko relevantniji postkolonijalni smisao ove opozicije. Prema postkolonijalnoj teoriji, ‘drugi' se odnosi na kolonizovani subjekt, čiji identitet se poima kao različit od JA (stran i marginalizovan), dok se ‘Drugi’ odnosi na kolonizatora, jer njegov pogled konstruiše okvir u kome kolonizovani subjekt, poput deteta, sebe doživljava kao zavisnog i inferiornog (Ashcroft et al. 2000: 170). Takođe, od važnosti za istraživanje jesu i tri vida stvaranja ‘drugog’ koje je prepoznala Gajatri Spivak (Spivak 1985): (1) svetovanje – proglašavanje kolonizovanog prostora delom civilizacije sa ciljem da se on kontroliše, (2) nipodaštavanje ‘drugog’ putem uvreda i snishodljivog stava, (3) sprečavanje nepotrebnih kontakata između kolonizatora i kolonizovanih, a za kojima se, između ostalog, traga u odabranim književnim delima. Rad se povremeno poziva i na druge postkolonijalne teoretičare, od kojih su najistaknutiji Edvard Said (Said), Franc Fanon (Fanon), Žan Pol Sartr (Sartre), Ijan Buruma (Buruma), Avišai Margalit (Margalit), Piter Hjum (Hulme) i Cvetan Todorov (Todorov), ali i na, pošto to zahteva predmet istraživanja, sekundarnu građu iz drugih nauka, posebno istorije i sociologije. Kako bi se ostvario cilj istraživanja, osnovna i pomoćne hipoteze argumentuju se u okviru četiri tematski podeljena poglavlja. Prvo poglavlje posvećeno je vidovima konstrukcije ‘drugog’ i odnosu prema ‘drugom’ u kontekstu kolonijalizma, pri čemu je akcenat na analizi diskursa kanibalizma i varvarizma, dehumanizaciji kolonijalnog ‘drugog’ i značaju religije i jezika kao faktora drugosti. Dela interpretirana u ovom poglavlju su Bura, Robinzon Kruso, Dalje avanture Robinzona Krusoa i Iščekujući varvare. Drugo poglavlje bavi se konceptom drugosti u okviru diskursa rasizma, a na osnovu romana Ujka Tomina koliba, Najplavlje oko i Sramota. Treće se fokusira na odnos prema ‘drugom’ u okviru diskursa orijentalizma i okcidentalizma, prateći postepeno pogoršavanje tog odnosa na relaciji Istok-Zapad i Zapad-Istok. U njemu su analizirani Jedno putovanje u Indiju i Čarobnica iz Firence. Poslednje poglavlje istražuje status migranta kao tipičnog ‘drugog’ u savremeno doba, odnosno nakon dekolonizacije. Posebna pažnja posvećena je pitanju da li je veći deo stereotipnih DIJAHRONIJSKA ANALIZA NEKIH ASPEKATA DRUGOSTI U ANGLOFONOJ KNJIŽEVNOSTI III predstava o ‘drugom’ prisutan i danas, a odgovor se traži u romanima Zbogom za kosa i Nasleđeni gubitak i pripovetkama Hanifa Kurejšija. *** Neki od bitnih zaključaka do kojih se u disertaciji dolazi argumentovanjem prethodno postavljenih hipoteza su: - ideja o postojanju ‘drugog’ javlja se već sa prvim međucivilizacijskim kontaktima, ali biva učvršćena i oblikovana u doba kolonijalizma; - postepeno pogoršavanje predstava o ‘drugom’, naročito na relaciji Zapad-Istok, posledica je ekspanzionističkih težnji zapadnih država; - u doba ranog kolonijalizma javljaju se izvesni vidovi stvaranja ‘drugog’, između ostalog svetovanje, nipodaštavanje ‘drugog’ i distanciranje osvajača od osvojenih, koji u narednim epohama neprestano bivaju reprodukovani; - nipodaštavanje ‘drugog’ u službi je opravdanja/održavanja kolonijalnog sistema i javlja se u dva oblika: dehumanizacija ‘drugog’ i kliše o razvratnosti ‘drugog’; - stvaranje ‘drugog’ zasnovano je na binarnom načinu mišljenja; - kategorija ‘drugi’ može se podeliti u potkategorije koje se gradiraju u odnosu na to koliko odstupaju od norme JA, ili kolektivno MI; - ‘drugi’ ima vlastitog ‘drugog’ (a ne samo ‘Drugog’); - ‘drugi’ je promenljiva društvena konstrukcija. Sa promenom istorijskih okolnosti, ‘Drugi’ može postati ‘drugi’ (u postkolonijalnom smislu); - negativne predstave o ‘drugom’ menjaju se u skladu sa interesima hegemona, pri čemu se ponekad javljaju kontradiktornosti; - jezik, religija, rasa i odeća značajni su faktori u percipiranju drugosti; - ljubavna ili prijateljska veza sa ‘drugim’ povlači gubitak povlašćenog statusa; - tamnoputa žena je dvostruki ‘drugi’, i rasni i rodni; - ‘drugi’ je rezultat mehanizma projekcije vlastitih neprihvatljivih osobina na drugu osobu ili zajednicu. Kako se ponekad projektuju i poželjne osobine (vrline), zaključak je da ‘drugi’, iako ređe, može biti pozitivno vrednovan; - pripisivanje negativnih osobina ‘drugom’ može kod njega dovesti do psiholoških posledica, od kojih je najčešća poremećaj identiteta; DIJAHRONIJSKA ANALIZA NEKIH ASPEKATA DRUGOSTI U ANGLOFONOJ KNJIŽEVNOSTI IV - ‘drugi’ postoji u savremenom dobu, a najčešće je otelovljen u liku migranta; - značajan broj stereotipnih predstava o ‘drugom’ preživeo je do 21. veka; - proces stvaranja ‘drugog’ svojstven je ljudskom rodu. Navedenim zaključcima konačno se dokazuje osnovna hipoteza rada: na osnovu čitanja dela anglofone književnosti moguće je temeljnije i sveobuhvatnije razumeti koncept drugosti.sr
dc.descriptionBased on the premise that literature can provide an accurate reflection of social and geopolitical conditions, and thus also a reflection of the process of ‘othering’, its attendant practices, and the status of the ‘other’ in real social contexts, the paper inquires into the concept of otherness by analysing a representative selection of literary works written in English. Despite the frequency with which the concepts of otherness and the ‘other’ occur in psychoanalytic, postcolonial and contemporary political theories, the author of the paper has noticed that there is little extensive research about how they have been incorporated into literature. The contribution of the paper would therefore be an in-depth interpretation of a number of Anglophone works written in different epochs, which could provide an insight into diachronic changes of the status of the ‘other’, various manifestations of the process of ‘othering’ and its accompanying practices, the factors affecting the perception of the ‘other’, and the changing relationship towards the ‘other’ from colonial beginnings to date. The aim is to expand the knowledge about the concept of otherness. The basic methods used in the research are interpretative analysis, generalisation and induction. Having compiled a comprehensive bibliography of theoretical and literary texts and pinpointed the key issues of the dissertation, the author selected representative literary works for each segment of the paper and interpreted them in the light of the existing psychoanalytic and postcolonial theories. The works in question are: William Shakespeare’s Tempest, Daniel Defoe’s Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner and Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Toni Morrison’s Bluest Eye, E. M. Forster’s Passage to India, Salman Rushdie’s Enchantress of Florence, Anita Desai’s Bye-bye Black Bird, Kiran Desai’s Inheritance of Loss, J. M. Coetzee’s Disgrace and Waiting for the Barbarians, and Hanif Kureishi’s four short stories. As noted above, the paper draws on psychoanalytic and postcolonial theories. The dichotomy the ‘other’/the ‘Other’, introduced by Jacques Lacan and later DIJAHRONIJSKA ANALIZA NEKIH ASPEKATA DRUGOSTI U ANGLOFONOJ KNJIŽEVNOSTI VI ado[a]pted by postcolonial theoreticians, is thereby of great importance for this research. According to Lacan, the ‘other’ is formed in the so-called “Mirror Stage” (when the child is 6 to 18 months of age) and manifested as the child’s mirror image which provides the child with a more stable and more perfect version of its self and later becomes the ego. The ‘Other’ is embodied in one of the child’s parents, and his/her gaze ensures the existence of the child and shapes the child’s identity (Lacan 1977: 1–7). The postcolonial sense of this binary is of even greater relevance for the paper. Namely, in postcolonial theory, the ‘other’ refers to the colonized subject, whose identity is somehow ‘other’ (strange, marginalized), whereas the ‘Other’ refers to the colonizer, as his/her gaze constructs the framework in which the colonized subjects, like children, perceive themselves as dependent and inferior (Ashcroft et al. 2000: 170–171). Three examples of the process of ‘othering’ highlighted by Gayatri Spivak (Spivak 1985) are also of high theoretical relevance. These are (1) worlding – declaring the colonized space a part of the civilized world in order to control it, (2) debasement and degradation of the ‘other’ through insults and condescension, and (3) prevention of unnecessary contacts between the colonizer and the colonized. The paper occasionally relies on other postcolonial theoreticians, the most notable being Edward Said, Frantz Fanon, Jean Paul Sartre, Ian Buruma, Avishai Margalit, Peter Hulme and Tzvetan Todorov, and, since it is required by the research topic, on the sources provided by other sciences as well, especially history and sociology. In order to fulfill the goal of the dissertation, the author supports her basic and auxiliary hypotheses with arguments within four thematically divided chapters. The first chapter sets out to examine various forms of ‘othering’ and the relationship towards the ‘other’ in colonial contexts, focusing on the discourses of cannibalism and barbarism, dehumanization of the colonial ‘other’ and the roles of language and religion in the perception of otherness. The works analysed in this chapter are The Tempest, The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner, The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe and Waiting for the Barbarians. The second chapter is devoted to the concept of the ‘other’ within the discourse of racism, and concentrates on the novels Uncle Tom’s Cabin, The Bluest Eye and Disgrace. The third chapter inquires into the notion of otherness from the Orientalist and Occidentalist perspectives, and detects the gradual deterioration of the relationship between the East and the West. The DIJAHRONIJSKA ANALIZA NEKIH ASPEKATA DRUGOSTI U ANGLOFONOJ KNJIŽEVNOSTI VII conclusions are drawn from the novels A Passage to India and The Enchantress of Florence. The last chapter looks into the status of the migrant as the typical ‘other’ in modern times, i.e. after decolonisation. A special attention is paid to the issue whether the majority of the previously established stereotypes about the ‘other’ are present in contemporary societies, while the answers are sought in the novels Bye-bye Black Bird and The Inheritance of Loss, and in Hanif Kureishi’s four short stories. *** Some of the key findings of the paper, arrived at by supporting the previously formulated hypotheses, are as follows: - The notion of the ‘other’ emerged with the first civilizational contacts, but was shaped and consolidated in the colonial era, - Deterioration of the attitude towards the ‘other’ (especially the Orient as the ‘other’) is to be attributed to the expansionist policies of the Western countries, - Certain forms of ‘othering’, such as worlding, disparagement of the ‘other’ and distancing of the conquerors from the conquered, were instituted in the early colonial period and re-produced in the succeeding epochs, - Debasement of the ‘other’ serves to justify/maintain the colonial system and has two manifestations: (1) dehumanisation of the ‘other’ and (2) the cliché about his/her lechery, - Construction of the ‘other’ relies upon binary thinking, - The ‘other’ category is hierarchical in structure, i.e. it can be divided into subcategories, the criterion being the degree of deviation from the norm (ME, or collectively, US), - The ‘other’ possesses the ‘other’ of his/her own (and not only the ‘Other’), - The ‘other’ is an alterable social construct. The change of historical circumstances may result in the ‘Other’’s becoming the ‘other’ (in the postcolonial sense), - Negative representations of the ‘other’ change according to the interests of the hegemon, despite the possibility of their mutual contradictions, DIJAHRONIJSKA ANALIZA NEKIH ASPEKATA DRUGOSTI U ANGLOFONOJ KNJIŽEVNOSTI VIII - Language, religion, race and clothes are significant factors in the perception of the ‘other’, - Marital or friendly relationship with the ‘other’ entails the loss of the privileged status, - Coloured women are doubly victimized, being both racial and gender ‘others’, - The ‘other’ is a consequence of the psychological projection of one’s undesirable/prohibited characteristics onto the other person or community. However, desirable traits are occasionally projected as well, which means that the ‘other’ (although rarely) can be esteemed, - Being ascribed negative qualities, the ‘other’ may develop psychological disorders, and the most frequent among these are identity disorders, - The ‘other’ is present in the modern age, and is typically embodied in the migrant, - A considerable number of stereotypical representations of the ‘other’ have survived until the present times, and - Construction of the ‘other’ is natural for humankind. These findings assuredly confirm the basic hypothesis of the dissertation: reading the works of Anglophone literature contributes o a more profound and comprehensive understanding of the concept of otherness.en
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dc.languagesr
dc.publisherУниверзитет у Београду, Филолошки факултетsr
dc.rightsAutorstvo 3.0 Srbija (CC BY 3.0)
dc.sourceУниверзитет у Београдуsr
dc.subject‘drugi’, ‘Drugi’, stvaranje ‘drugog’, drugost, kolonijalizam, Orijentalizam, Okcidentalizam, rasa, migrantsr
dc.subjectthe ‘other’, the ‘Other’, ‘othering’, otherness, colonialism, Orientalism, Occidentalism, race, migranten
dc.titleDijahronijska analiza nekih aspekata drugosti u anglofonoj književnostisr
dc.titleDiachronic analysis of certain aspects of otherness in anglophone literatureen
dc.typePhD thesis
dcterms.abstractЂорић-Француски, Биљана; Павловић, Томислав; Јовановић, Aлександра; Тодоровић, Ивана М.; Дијахронијска анализа неких аспеката другости у англофоној књижевности; Дијахронијска анализа неких аспеката другости у англофоној књижевности;


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