Novi kvantitativni kriteriumi procene stepena zagađenja životne sredine vodama sa organohlornim insekticidima
New quantitative criteria assess the degree of environmental water pollution with organochlorine insecticides
Marinović, Dragan D.
Faculty:University of Niš, Faculty of Occupational Safety
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Environmental pollution is the result of rapid urbanization, industrialization, transport development and intensive agricultural production with the constant introduction of new technologies. Since the middle of last century, a disproportion occurs between the increase in human population and the necessary renewal of natural resources. The problem of water protection is an integral part of the overall problem of protection, promotion and preservation of the environment. Water protection is a broad and complex topic, so it is interdisciplinary. Increased use of chemicals in agriculture, particularly organochlorine insecticides (OCI) plant protection products, lead to their increased amount in water. Although OCI are very toxic substances for wildlife, especially for humans, a large part of the population is exposed to their daily activities in small quantities. For many OCI there is not enough data on the toxicity and we can not perform an accurate assessment of security. Previous studies
did not provide accurate information about the effects on human health at concentrations normally found in drinking water. OCI presence in drinking water is generally below the maximum allowable concentration, but repeated doses can cause chronic toxic effects. For these reasons, the main objective of cleaning water is getting water from the lower concentration of OCI. Standard methods of water purification do not remove pesticides, so it is necessary to introduce some additional treatment using coagulation, oxidation and adsorption agents. Many studies suggest a beneficial effect of water purification, activated carbon. Activated carbon is, today, considered the most effective substance in purification of water contaminated with OCI but the procedure is still under developement. Adsorption characteristics of activated carbon must meet the requirement of efficient water purification of organochlorine insecticides, and other substances that are prohibited in concentrations. For these reasons, the goal of research is to analyze the state of the burden of drinking and wastewater aggregate and individual OCI prescribed in the Regulations of the chemical quality of drinking water (Official Gazette of FRY, no. 42/98 and 44/99). The survey covered the following OCI: alpha-hexachloro cyclohexane, lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane. For some OCI values of maximum permissible concentrations are not organized in our normative and EU reulative. Therefore, the overall goal of the research is to establishing new criteria for each tested OCI. In addition, the aim of the research includes finding the most efficient method of water purification using commercial activated carbons. To achieve the objective of the survey water was analyzed from the water supply of the City of Kraljevo and waste water from fruit plants PIK „Takovo” and ZZ „Lunovo selo”. In the water samples qualitative and quantitative analysis of physical-chemical parameters were performed, total and individual OCI required by the current regulations. The analyzes were performed before and after the water purification. For the purification of water we used an experimental model of columns filled with four kinds of activated carbons, which can be found on the market. Physico-chemical analysis of water were made by following methods: · volumetric methods (volumetric determination of organic substances-consumption of KMnO4, calcium and magnesium); · electrochemical method (pH); · spectrophotometric methods (determination of nitrate, ammonia, iron); · chemical methods: chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solids, total organic carbon (TOC) and surface-active matters (SAM). Present organochlorine insecticides were treated according to the appropriate method of the EPA-608, a liquid-liquid extraction. The method is equally applicable for determination of organochlorine insecticides in drinking water and wastewater. Investigated organochlorine insecticides were detected by gas chromatography chromatograph "Perkin Elmer" 8500 with ECD detector, with appropriate columns . Quantitative data on the toxicity of the investigated physico-chemical parameters and specific organochlorine insecticides in water were obtained as the sum of the quotient of measured concentrations and corresponding boundary residue levels (MAC) taken from the applicable ordinances and regulations: Based on the objectives and the results obtained, among other things, following conclusions were derived: · Analysis of physico-chemical parameters and total organochlorine insecticides in samples of drinking water indicates that the water meets the standards of the Ordinance on the sanitary quality of drinking water (Official Gazette of FRY, no. 42/98 and 44/99). · The tap water: Institute of Public Health, Kraljevo and pumping stations Konarevo showed increased concentration of organochlorine insecticide heptachlor and aldrin, which is an alarming fact, and further extensive testing and water treatment are necessary. · The drinking water of the city of Kraljevo must be treated with activated carbon to meet standards given by the Regulations. · It was found that, of the tested commercial activated carbons, the best effect of drinking water treatment, based of physico-chemical parameters, total and individual OCI, achieved by column experimental model, which is filled with active carbon NORIT ROW-0.8. When it comes to changes in water quality predicted Regulation on hygienic drinking water. · The effect of wastewater treatment on the physical and chemical parameters, total and individual OCI is high and the best column in an experimental model which is filled with active carbon NORIT ROW-0.8, more than 92%. Treated waste water have, a pH value that is increased compared to the values predicted applicable statutes and regulations. · Based on the results of determining the toxicity of hazardous substances examined, it can beView More
Keywords:Voda, pijaća voda, otpadna voda, prečišćavanje, životna sredina; drinking water, wastewater, treatment, organochlorine insecticides, charcoal, gas chromatography