Potamološke karakteristike Tise u Srbiji i predispozicije za razvoj nautičkog turizma
Potamological characteristics of the Tisa river in Serbia and predispositions for nautical tourism development
Committee membersRomelić, Jovan
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Tisa nastaje spajanjem Crne i Bele Tise kod Rahova u Ukrajini. Osim kroz pomenutu zemlju ova reka teče još kroz Rumuniju, Mađarsku i Srbiju, dok na kraćoj deonici dodiruje teritoriju Slovačke. Površina sliva Tise, koji je najvećim delom ravničarskog karaktera, iznosi 157.220 km2, od čega se u granicama Srbije nalazi 9.460 km2 slivnog područja. Veštačkim prosecanjem brojnih meandara tok Tise je skraćen za 453 km, tako da je današnja dužina reke 966 km. Kroz Srbiju Tisa teče izrazito meandarskim koritom dužine od 164 km. Tisa predstavlja najveću pritoku Dunava u koji se uliva naspram Starog Slankamena. Izgradnjom brana na Tisi i obrazovanjem hidroakumulacija na uzvodnim sektorima u velikoj meri su poboljšani uslovi plovidbe na ovoj reci. Upravo dobri plovidbeni uslovi predstavljaju glavnu predizpoziciju za razvoj nautičkog turizma. Prihvatni objekti nautičkog turizma su: nautička sidrišta, privezišta, turistička pristaništa, marine i nautičko-turistički centri. Glave predispozicije za ...razvoj nautičkog turizma u srpskom Potisju u prvom redu predstavljaju dobri plovidbeni uslovi na Tisi, tranzitna uloga ove deonice toka, kao i brojna prirodna i kulturna dobra u bližem i daljem priobalju reke. Ono što nedostaje i zbog čega je nautički turizam u srpskom Potisju na veoma niskom nivou, jesu dobro opremljeni prihvatni objekti, uopšte viši nivo usluga i dobro osmišljena marketinška aktivnost.
The Tisa comes into being by merging of the Black and White Tisa near Rahovo in Ukraine. Apart from Ukraine, the river flows through Romania, Hungary and Serbia, being tangent to the territory of Slovakia in the shorter part of its flow. The river basin, mainly situated in the low land, covers the area of 157,220 km2, out of which 9,460 km2 is on the territory of Serbia. Artificially made meanders shortened the flow of the Tisa for 453 km, which contributed to its present length of 966 km. The Tisa flows in a 164 km long meandrous riverbed through Serbia. Generally, the direction of the flow in this sector is meridian, thus making the river a natural border between Banat in the east and Backa in the west. The Tisa is the largest of the Danube tributaries, joining the Danube at its 1,214.5th river kilometer near Stari Slankamen. Due to the wide scope of passive and active measures, undertaken with the aim to organize the water of the Tisa, the river system was significantly changed in c...omparison to the natural one. Apart from the artificial shortening of the flow and building dykes on riverbanks, the most significant changes in the river system were mainly influenced by dams built near Tiszalök, Kisköre, and Novi Becej, due to which three water steps were formed in the middle and lower river’s flow. With the exception of the spring period of high water level, in other periods of the year the Tisa river regime is artificially directed, which is noticeable in the parts upstream of dams. However, due to the prevailing natural conditions, first of all climate conditions, it could be established that in lower part of the Tisa, the highest water levels and flow rates occur in spring reaching their maximum values in April and the lowest occur in autumn, reaching minimum values in October. Navigation conditions on the river are improved to large extent by building dams on the Tisa and making hydro accumulations in upstream sectors. On Serbian part of the river flow, the conditions are particularly good upstream the dam built near Novi Becej at 63th river kilometer. It is exactly the navigation conditions which represent the main predisposition for nautical tourism development. However, this rather attractive form of tourism in the world lately is not only connected with navigation and navigation course, but also with different activities on the banks and wider riversides, such as sports and recreational, cultural, entertaining, etc. For the needs of nautical tourism, various types of boats are used and various objects are built on river banks or on the river. The objects are used for accepting, supplying, protection, maintenance and repairing the boats used in tourism and also for providing navigators with different services. Accepting objects in nautical tourism are: nautical anchorages, moorings, tourist quays, marines and nautical tourism centers. Firstly, the main predispositions for nautical tourism development in Serbian Potisje are good navigation conditions on the Tisa, transit feature of this part of the flow, as well as numerous natural and cultural assets closer to or farther from riversides. The missing links, which leave nautical tourism in Serbian Potisje on very low level, are well equipped private accommodation, generally higher level of services and well planned marketing activities.