Razvoj regionalnog sistema upravljanja farmaceutskim otpadom
Hristov, Slađan D.
Faculty:University of Niš, Faculty of Occupational Safety
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Pharmaceutical waste, and especially components considered to be hazardous waste, (and which due to their characteristics such as infectivity, inflammation, ecotoxicity, radioactivity etc.) can be extremely harmful to human health and the quality of the environment, in cases it is inadequately treated. The most significant quantities of medical waste are generated by hospitals that in a large number of cases this generated waste consider to be infectious, which is not the case with pharmaceutical waste where households appear as dominant sources. Then follow other institutions which have the same or related activities, such as health centers, dental offices, veterinary stations, research laboratories, etc. And it is just because of inadequate waste prevention and the final disposal of this kind of waste, developed countries started to regulate this issue a long time ago, so during 1980s of the 20th century, US EPA developed detailed protocols on monitoring the movement of
waste and in that way formed good bases for further taking adequate measures in this area. The presence of the permanent generating risks and dangers in the management of pharmaceutical waste confirms the view that it is a complicated and complex issue that needs to be studied more. The past decades have been marked by a constant increase in the amount of generated pharmaceutical waste in almost all societies and on different continents, as well as insufficient knowledge of its characteristics and negative consequences for human health and the environment. In addition, the low level of development of different options for its treatment, led to the conclusion that the disposal of pharmaceutical waste in landfills is the simplest but also the most economically advantageous solution. In this doctoral thesis, it can be seen that the consequences of this approach and practice are felt today, because we have hundreds of thousands of contaminated landfill sites with contaminated soil, groundwater and surface water around the world, which require urgent remediation measures in the hope that it will raise their quality to a desired level. In the life cycle of pharmaceutical waste, there is its production as the first phase, ie., generation, which includes many of man's productive activities, the development of modern technologies and the application of new materials, and thus the later use of the finished products. Pharmaceutical waste generators are numerous, and for that reason, at this stage of waste management their identification must be carried out, locating and monitoring as well, with the registration of data on generated quantities at regular intervals. Pharmaceutical waste can come from industry or households, respectively, can be generated by the manufacturers of many products for everyday use, specialized manufacturers, hospitals, universities, government agencies, the commercial sector and individuals, ie., households. The aim of the research is based on the development of a regional model of pharmaceutical waste management, while respecting the existing positive experience in the development model of medical waste management, with special consideration of all relevant aspects of environmental quality. Taking into account the complexity of research in this doctoral thesis a systematic approach was used in the study. System analysis of regional model of pharmaceutical waste management, harmonized with the quality of the environment is realized through: the collection of data on categories of pharmaceutical waste and analysis of the current situation, ie. characteristics of existing techniques and technologies of pharmaceutical waste management and environmental quality; analysis of existing models of pharmaceutical waste management; defining a regional model of pharmaceutical waste management, identifying opportunities and conditions for the practical application of the regional model of pharmaceutical waste management and definition of practical guidelines for proposed regional model of pharmaceutical waste management. The defined method of the research is based on the study of existing models of pharmaceutical waste management, organizational procedures and organizational resources and analysis of the data collected. The development of this doctoral work included the analysis of available literature that deals with this issue, as well as indirectly analyzing the performance of organizations that can occur as direct implementers of sustainable management of pharmaceutical waste management and environmental protection.View More
Keywords:životna sredina; environment; pharmaceutical waste; regional system; life cycle analysis; management; ATC classification; methods of treatment; farmaceutski otpad; regionalni sistem; analiza životnog ciklusa; upravljanje; ATS klasifikacija; metode tretmana