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Myth and science in Plato's "Timaeus"

dc.contributor.advisorDeretić, Irina
dc.contributor.otherGovedarica, Milanko
dc.contributor.otherŠijaković, Bogoljub
dc.creatorKandić, Aleksandar
dc.date.accessioned2018-12-28T09:11:06Z
dc.date.available2018-12-28T09:11:06Z
dc.date.available2020-07-03T09:54:28Z
dc.date.issued2018-03-23
dc.identifier.urihttp://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/handle/123456789/10543
dc.identifier.urihttp://eteze.bg.ac.rs/application/showtheses?thesesId=6403
dc.identifier.urihttps://fedorabg.bg.ac.rs/fedora/get/o:19099/bdef:Content/download
dc.identifier.urihttp://vbs.rs/scripts/cobiss?command=DISPLAY&base=70036&RID=50859023
dc.description.abstractDijalog Timaj predstavlja jedan od najpoznatijih Platonovih dijaloga koji je izvršio izuzetan uticaj kako na antičke filozofe, tako i na hrišćanske teologe, pa i renesansne, moderne i savremene mislioce. Kosmološki mit koji Platon formuliše u Timaju predstavlja originalnu mešavinu mitskih, prirodno-filozofskih i matematičkih elemenata, te je stoga već od svog pojavljivanja bio predmet raznovrsnih, manje ili više oštrih interpretativnih sporova. Kao jedan od osnovnih pravaca tumačenja može se izdvojiti onaj u kome se teži eliminaciji nekih mitskih aspekata Timaja. Među sledbenike ovog pravca tumačenja spada Aristotel, filozofi stare Akademije, te savremeni istraživači antičke filozofije kao što su Kornford (F. M. Cornford), kod kojeg je prisutna težnja da mitski pojam demijurga (demiourgos) izjednači sa pojmom duše sveta (psyche tou kosmou), ili G. R. Karoni (G. R. Carone), Dž. Dilon (J. Dillon), odnosno O’Brajen (C. S. O’Brien). S druge strane, prema interpretativnom stanovištu koje zastupaju autori kao što su S. Broudi (S. Broadie), L. Brison (L. Brisson), T. Robinson (T. Robinson), ili T. Johansen (T. Kj. Johansen), mitski aspekti Timaja, a naročito pojam demijurga, jesu nužni i suštinski za izgradnju Platonove prirodno-filozofske tj. kosmološke pozicije, što znači da se mitski i naučni aspekti teksta moraju proučavati zajedno i isključivo u međusobnom odnosu. Za Platona, nauka (episteme) podrazumeva znanje o nepromenljivim stvarima, i deli se na matematiku i dijalektiku. Međutim, u dijalogu Timaj, govor (logos) o prirodi i strukturi kosmosa označen je kao mit (muthos), budući da, za Platona, taj govor može u najboljem slučaju biti samo „verovatan“ (eikos), a ne apsolutno izvestan, poput onog o matematičkim entitetima i zakonitostima. I pored toga, Platon u Timaju predlaže matematički model objašnjenja prirodnih pojava, i raspravu o strukturi kosmosa i strukturi duše sveta temelji kako na saznanju matematičkih entiteta, tako i ideja. Platonova kosmologija postavljena je u izrazito mitski okvir: kosmos je delo demijurga (ili zanatlije, graditelja), tvorca fizičkog sveta, koji ugledajući se na savršenstvo matematičkih entiteta oblikuje prirodu, pritom se nalazeći „izvan“ same prirode. Koja je uloga mitskih elemenata u Platonovoj kosmologiji, i u čemu se sastoji smisao pojma demijurga? Ukoliko, prema Platonu, matematički principi mogu objasniti strukturu fizičkog sveta, zašto je onda neophodno da Platonova kosmološka teorija uopšte bude smeštena u mitski okvir? Na posletku, ukoliko Platon govor o prirodi označava kao “verovatan”, i uz to predlaže matematički model objašnjenja, ima li osnova za bilo kakvo plodno poređenje – naročito sa stanovišta istorije ideja - između Platonovog pojma nauke i modernog pojma nauke? Platonu je pojam demijurga neophodan upravo da bi na indirektan način ukazao na značaj razuma i ljudske perspektive u konstituisanju poretka čulnog sveta, te bi eliminacija ovog pojma vodila urušavanju psihičkih, antropoloških aspekata Platonove kosmologije. Ti aspekti za Platona jesu izuzetno značajni, jer, putem njih, Platon se suprotstavlja svim „mehanicističkim“ viđenjima prirode. Pojam demijurga trebalo bi da, u vidu metafore, Platonovim čitaocima sugeriše da nepromenljivi principi na osnovu kojih je sazdan fizički svet mogu biti predmet ljudskog promišljanja, te da bez postojanja ljudskog razuma nije ni mogućno govoriti o strukturi fizičkog sveta, ili njegovoj svrhovitosti i racionalnosti.sr
dc.description.abstractThe Timaeus is one of the most famous Plato’s dialogues which exerted enormous influence on ancient philosophers, Christian theologians, as well as various Renaissance, modern and contemporary thinkers. The cosmological myth elaborated in the Timaeus represents an original mixture of mythical, natural-philosophical and mathematical elements, and hence, since its appearance, it has been the subject of various, more or less intense interpretative disputes. According to one basic line of interpretation, some mythical elements in the Timaeus might be eliminated. Supporters of this interpretative stance include Aristotle, Old Academicians, as well as contemporary researchers of ancient philosophy such are F. M. Cornford, who made an attempt to equalize the mythical demiurge (demiourgos) with the world soul (psyche tou kosmou), as well as G. R. Carone, J. Dillon, and C. S. O’Brien. On the other hand, according to the interpretations put forward by S. Broadie, L. Brisson, T. Robinson, and T. Kj. Johansen, the mythical aspects of the Timaeus, particularly the notion of demiurge, are necessary and essential for the constitution of Plato’s natural-philosophical, or cosmological position, which means that the mythical and scientific aspects of the text have to be examined together in mutual relationship. For Plato, science (episteme) is the knowledge of unchangeable things, and consists of mathematics and dialectics. However, in the Timaeus, the speech (logos) about nature and the structure of the universe is called a myth (muthos) because for Plato, this speech is no more than „probable“ (eikos) and not absolutely certain, such as the one about mathematical laws and entities. Still, when it comes to the study of nature, Plato proposes the mathematical model of explanation in the Timaeus, and founds his considerations about the structure of the universe and the world soul upon the knowledge of mathematical entities and ideas. Plato’s cosmology is placed within pronouncedly mythical framework: the universe is a product of the demiurge (or, craftsman, architect), the creator of physical world who provides sensible form to nature by looking upon the perfection of mathematical entities, himself being „outside“ the nature. What is the role of mythical elements in Plato’s cosmology, and what is the purpose of the demiurge? If, according to Plato, mathematical principles explain the structure of the physical world, why is it necessary that his cosmological theory is placed within the mythical framework at all? Finally, if Plato considers his speech about nature as „probable“, and proposes the mathematical model of explanation, is there any ground for a fruitful comparison – particularly within the context of history of ideas – between Plato’s notion of science, and the modern one? The notion of demiurge is necessary for Plato in order to emphasize, in an indirect manner, the importance of reason and human perspective for the constitution of natural order, which means that elimination of such notion leads to the collapse of psychological, anthropological aspects of Plato’s cosmology. These aspects are very significant for Plato - they are employed in order to refute all „mechanicistic“ explanations of nature. The notion of demiurge, as a metaphor, is supposed to tell Plato’s readers that the unchanging principles upon which the physical world rests may become the subject of human thought, as well as that without existence of human reason, it is not even possible to converse about the structure of physical world, its purposefulness, and rationality.en
dc.formatapplication/pdf
dc.languagesr
dc.publisherУниверзитет у Београду, Филозофски факултетsr
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MESTD/Basic Research (BR or ON)/179064/RS//
dc.rightsopenAccessen
dc.sourceУниверзитет у Београдуsr
dc.subjectPlatonov dijalog Timajsr
dc.subjectPlato’s Timaeusen
dc.subjectdemijurgsr
dc.subjectmitsr
dc.subjectnaukasr
dc.subjectfilozofija prirodesr
dc.subjectstruktura psihesr
dc.subjectmatematički model objašnjenjasr
dc.subjectdemiurgeen
dc.subjectmythen
dc.subjectscienceen
dc.subjectphilosophy of natureen
dc.subjectthe structure of psycheen
dc.subjectmathematical model of explanationen
dc.titleMit i nauka u Platonovom dijalogu "Timaj"sr
dc.title.alternativeMyth and science in Plato's "Timaeus"en
dc.typedoctoralThesis
dc.rights.licenseBY-NC-ND
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/bitstream/id/25605/Disertacija.pdf
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/bitstream/id/25606/IzvestajKomisije18678.pdf


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